MMWR- Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
MMWR News Synopsis for June 25, 2015
Prevalence of Diagnosed and Undiagnosed HIV Infection — United States, 2008–2012
HIV diagnosis is the essential first step in ensuring those living with HIV can access ongoing care and treatment, as well as other information and tools to help prevent transmission to others. More than one million people are living with HIV in the U.S. Although most of these individuals are aware of their infection, those who are not cannot benefit from life-extending treatment. They account for a significant proportion (30 percent) of new HIV transmissions. Reaching these individuals with HIV testing is critical. For this analysis, CDC researchers analyzed data from the National HIV Surveillance System to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed HIV for the 50 states and the District of Columbia. In 2012, the number of people living with HIV ranged from 110 (Iowa) to 3,936 (Washington, DC) per 100,000 persons in 42 jurisdictions with stable estimates. The percentage living with diagnosed HIV ranged from 77.4 percent in Louisiana to 90 percent or greater in Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, and New York. These five jurisdictions have already met the National HIV/AIDS Strategy goal of increasing the percentage of people living with HIV who know their serostatus to 90 percent by 2015. These data underscore the continued need for ongoing efforts to increase testing to further reduce undiagnosed HIV infection. The authors also note that because the percentage of persons who are diagnosed varies by geographic area, efforts tailored to each area’s unique needs and situations may be needed.
Identifying New Positives and Linkage to HIV Medical Care — 23 Testing Site Types, United States, 2013
Health care and non-health care settings both play a pivotal role in reaching undiagnosed persons with HIV testing services. CDC recommends routine HIV screening in health care settings for persons aged 13-64 years. However, targeted testing in non-health care settings is also critical to reach populations that continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV (e.g., African Americans, men who have sex with men, and Latinos) and do not routinely seek care. To better understand in what settings HIV testing and diagnosis is taking place, CDC researchers reviewed data from 61 health departments and 151 community-based organizations that were funded by CDC to conduct HIV testing. In 2013, a larger percentage of HIV-positive persons were newly diagnosed in STD clinics (0.8 percent) as compared to other health care sites (0.2-0.5 percent). In non-health care sites, HIV counseling and testing sites conducted the largest number of HIV testing events and identified the largest number of new positives (3,860). The findings indicate that certain sites yield higher percentages of newly diagnosed HIV-positive persons and highlight the importance of national program monitoring and evaluation efforts to determine which sites are most effectively providing HIV testing, diagnosing new positives, and linking HIV-positive persons to care. The authors note this analysis can be used to inform decisions about program planning and allocation of HIV testing resources.
Recreational Water–Associated Disease Outbreaks — United States, 2011–2012
To protect ourselves, our family, and our friends, here are a few easy and effective steps all of us can take each time we swim:
- Keep the pee, poop, sweat, and dirt out of the water!
- Don’t swim if you have diarrhea.
- Shower before you get in the water.
- Don’t pee or poop in the water.
- Don’t swallow the water.
- Every hour—everyone out!
- Take kids on bathroom breaks
- Check diapers, and change them in a bathroom or diaper-changing area to keep germs away from the water.
To get your FREE CDC Healthy Swimming brochure visit: www.cdc.gov/healthyswimming.
For 2011–2012, public health officials from 32 states and Puerto Rico reported 90 outbreaks linked to swimming in water contaminated with germs or chemicals. The 90 outbreaks affected at least 1,788 people and resulted in at least 95 hospitalizations and one death. Of 69 (77%) outbreaks linked to swimming in water treated with disinfectants, such as chlorine or bromine (for example, in pools), 36 (52%) were caused by Cryptosporidium. This parasite can survive in properly treated water for more than 10 days. Typical filters do not effectively remove Cryptosporidium or other germs. This means we all need to help keep Cryptosporidium and other germs out of the water we share in the first place.
State Tobacco Control Program Spending — United States, 2011
If states allocated funding for tobacco prevention and control efforts at CDC’s Best Practices levels, they could achieve larger and more rapid reductions in tobacco use and associated morbidity and mortality. Evidence-based, statewide tobacco control programs that are comprehensive, sustained, and accountable have been shown to reduce smoking rates and tobacco-related diseases and deaths. States that have made larger investments in tobacco prevention and control have seen larger declines in cigarette sales than the United States as a whole, and the prevalence of smoking has declined faster as spending for tobacco control programs has increased. States underinvested in their tobacco prevention and control programs in fiscal year 2011, spending $658 million. This spending is only 17.8% of the amount recommended by CDC’s Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs, or less than 3% of the $24.2 billion they received from tobacco tax revenues and Master Settlement Agreement payments.
Notes from the Field:
Measles Transmission at a Domestic Terminal Gate in an International Airport — Minnesota, April–May 2014