Kyasanur Forest Disease Outbreak and Vaccination Strategy, Shimoga District, India, 2013–2014 - Volume 21, Number 1—January 2015 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC
Volume 21, Number 1—January 2015
Kyasanur Forest Disease Outbreak and Vaccination Strategy, Shimoga District, India, 2013–2014
In India, Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD), a tickborne viral hemorrhagic fever that occurs as seasonal outbreaks during January–June (1,2), has been endemic to 5 districts of Karnataka State. However, during 2012–2013, KFD infection was reported from other districts and states in India: Chamarajanagara District, Karnataka State; Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu State; and Waynad District, Kerala State (3).
Vaccination with formalin-inactivated tissue-culture vaccine has been the primary strategy for controlling KFD. The strategy involves mass vaccination in areas reporting KFD activity (i.e., laboratory evidence of KFD virus [KFDV] in monkeys, humans, or ticks) and in villages within a 5-km radius of such areas (Directorate of Health and Family Welfare Services, Government of Karnataka, 2005 manual on Kyasanur Forest disease; unpub. data). Two vaccine doses are administered at least 1 month apart to persons 7–65 years of age. Vaccine-induced immunity is short-lived, so the first booster dose of vaccine is recommended within 6–9 months after primary vaccination; thereafter, annual booster doses are recommended for 5 years after the last confirmed case in the area (4).
Beginning in January 2014, increased cases of unexplained fevers were reported from Thirthahalli Taluk, a subdistrict of Shimoga District (Figure 1). On February 6, 2014, the National Institute of Virology (Pune, India) confirmed the presence of KFDV in 5/12 serum samples from patients. We investigated the outbreak to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of KFD, estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE) and coverage, and propose recommendations for control.
Dr. Kiran is a senior medical officer with the Department of Health and Family Welfare, in Shimoga District, India, and he conducted this outbreak investigation as a part of a Master of Public Health course at the National Institute of Epidemiology, Chennai, India. His research interests include emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and vaccine-preventable diseases.
We gratefully acknowledge the assistance provided by Rajesh Suragihalli, K.S. Prakash, K.O. Narasimhamurthy, and Shama Begum Fakruddin.
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Suggested citation for this article: Kiran SK, Pasi A, Kumar S, Kasabi GS, Gujjarappa P, Shrivastava A, et al. Kyasanur Forest disease outbreak and vaccination strategy, Shimoga District, India, 2013–2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Jan [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2101.14-1227