Ahead of Print -Staphylococcus aureus Infections in New Zealand, 2000–2011 - Volume 20, Number 7—July 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC
Volume 20, Number 7—July 2014
Staphylococcus aureus Infections in New Zealand, 2000–2011
Deborah A. Williamson , Jane Zhang, Stephen R. Ritchie, Sally A. Roberts, John D. Fraser, and Michael G. Baker
Author affiliations: University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand (D.A. Williamson, S.R. Ritchie, J.D. Fraser); Institute of Environmental Science and Research, Wellington, New Zealand (D.A. Williamson); University of Otago, Wellington (J. Zhang, M.G Baker); Auckland District Health Board, Auckland (S.A. Roberts)
Despite advances in diagnostics and therapeutics, the clinical and economic burdens ofStaphylococcus aureus infections remain a substantial public health problem (1). During the past decade in several parts of the world, most notably in North America, the epidemiology of S. aureus infections has changed dramatically, predominantly because of the epidemic spread of a strain of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (2,3). Infections caused by community-associated MRSA are most commonly skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and typically occur in patients with no history of exposure to health care facilities (1). In addition, specific sociodemographic associations for community-associated MRSA infection have been described and include younger patient age, specific ethnic groups, and economic deprivation (1,4,5). Although the epidemiology of S. aureus infections has been well studied in North America, comparatively little is known about the trends and patient demographics for S. aureusinfections in other geographic settings, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. Knowledge of the overall prevalence and distribution of S. aureus infections, regardless of methicillin resistance, at a population level is crucial for informing prevention and control strategies.
The incidence of invasive and noninvasive S. aureus infections is reportedly higher In New Zealand than in other developed countries; rates are highest among Māori (indigenous New Zealanders) and Pacific Peoples (6–9). For example, in 1 study, S. aureus bacteremia was 2 times more likely to develop among Māori patients and 4 times more likely to develop among Pacific Peoples than among European patients (7). To date, however, studies describing S. aureus infections in New Zealand have generally been confined to 1 geographic region, to children, or to 1 specific aspect of S. aureus disease such as bloodstream or MRSA infection (4,6–8). Accordingly, we sought to describe the longitudinal trends for S. aureus infection and demographic characteristics of patients across the entire New Zealand population for the 12-year period 2000–2011.
This study was supported by internal funding.
Dr Williamson is a clinical microbiologist and a clinical research training fellow of the Health Research Council of New Zealand. Her research interests are the clinical and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus infections and infections caused by antimicrobial drug–resistant pathogens.
- Figure 1. Annual rates of Staphylococcus aureus–associated hospital discharge (nocases/100,000 population) and all-cause acute hospital discharge rates (nocases/100,000 population), New Zealand, 2000–2011Error bars indicate 95% CIs; for all-cause hospital discharges, error...
- Figure 2. Average annual ASR (nocases/100,000 population) of staphylococcal sepsis (A) and staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections (B), New Zealand, 2000–2011ASR, age-standardized rate.
- Figure 3. Admission rate ratios for Staphylococcus aureus–associated hospital discharges by ethnicity according to level of deprivation, New Zealand, 2000–2011A) Staphylococcal sepsis; B) staphylococcal pneumonia; C) staphylococcal skin and soft tissue...
Suggested citation for this article: Williamson DA, Zhang J, Ritchie SR, Roberts SA, Fraser JD, Baker MG. Staphylococcus aureus infections in New Zealand, 2000–2011. Emerg Infect Dis [Internet]. 2014 Jul [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2007.131923