PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43031. Epub 2012 Aug 13.
Critical Role of an Antiviral Stress Granule Containing RIG-I and PKR in Viral Detection and Innate Immunity.
Onomoto K, Jogi M, Yoo JS, Narita R, Morimoto S, Takemura A, Sambhara S, Kawaguchi A, Osari S, Nagata K, Matsumiya T, Namiki H, Yoneyama M, Fujita T.
SourceLaboratory of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
AbstractRetinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) function as cytoplasmic sensors for viral RNA to initiate antiviral responses including type I interferon (IFN) production. It has been unclear how RIG-I encounters and senses viral RNA. To address this issue, we examined intracellular localization of RIG-I in response to viral infection using newly generated anti-RIG-I antibody. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that RLRs localized in virus-induced granules containing stress granule (SG) markers together with viral RNA and antiviral proteins. Because of similarity in morphology and components, we termed these aggregates antiviral stress granules (avSGs). Influenza A virus (IAV) deficient in non-structural protein 1 (NS1) efficiently generated avSGs as well as IFN, however IAV encoding NS1 produced little. Inhibition of avSGs formation by removal of either the SG component or double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR) resulted in diminished IFN production and concomitant enhancement of viral replication. Furthermore, we observed that transfection of dsRNA resulted in IFN production in an avSGs-dependent manner. These results strongly suggest that the avSG is the locus for non-self RNA sensing and the orchestration of multiple proteins is critical in the triggering of antiviral responses.
- [PubMed - in process]