Optimizing the Design of Preprinted Orders for Ambulatory Chemotherapy: Combining Oncology, Human Factors, and Graphic Design
- Jennifer Jeon, MASc⇓,
- Rachel E. White, MA,
- Richard G. Hunt, MDes,
- Andrea L. Cassano-Piché, MASc and
- Anthony C. Easty, PhD
+ Author Affiliations
- University Health Network; Ontario College of Art and Design University; and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
- Corresponding author: Jennifer Jeon, Healthcare Human Factors, University Health Network, RFE 4th floor, 190 Elizabeth St, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 2C4; e-mail: Jennifer.Jeon@uhn.on.ca.
Purpose: To establish a set of guidelines for developing ambulatory chemotherapy preprinted orders.
Methods: Multiple methods were used to develop the preprinted order guidelines. These included (A) a comprehensive literature review and an environmental scan; (B) analyses of field study observations and incident reports; (C) critical review of evidence from the literature and the field study observation analyses; (D) review of the draft guidelines by a clinical advisory group; and (E) collaboration with graphic designers to develop sample preprinted orders, refine the design guidelines, and format the resulting content.
Results: The Guidelines for Developing Ambulatory Chemotherapy Preprinted Orders, which consist of guidance on the design process, content, and graphic design elements of ambulatory chemotherapy preprinted orders, have been established.
Conclusion: Health care is a safety critical, dynamic, and complex sociotechnical system. Identifying safety risks in such a system and effectively addressing them often require the expertise of multiple disciplines. This study illustrates how human factors professionals, clinicians, and designers can leverage each other's expertise to uncover commonly overlooked patient safety hazards and to provide health care professionals with innovative, practical, and user-centered tools to minimize those hazards.
- Accepted August 22, 2011.