miércoles, 30 de septiembre de 2009

West Nile Virus Infection, United States | CDC EID

EID Journal Home > Volume 15, Number 10–October 2009

Volume 15, Number 10–October 2009
West Nile Virus Infection in Plasma of Blood and Plasma Donors, United States
Christina B. Planitzer, Jens Modrof, Mei-ying W. Yu, and Thomas R. Kreil
Author affiliations: Baxter Bioscience, Vienna, Austria (C.B. Planitzer, J. Modrof, T.R. Kreil); and US Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland, USA (M.-y.W. Yu)

Suggested citation for this article

This study investigated the association of ongoing West Nile virus (WNV) infections with neutralizing antibody titers in US plasma-derived intravenous immune globulin released during 2003–2008. Titers correlated closely with the prevalence of past WNV infection in blood donors, with 2008 lots indicating a prevalence of 1%.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus endemic to the United States; typically, hundreds of clinical cases of infection occur each year. The observed number of clinical WNV infections as collated by ArboNET (www.cdc.gov) and the incidence of asymptomatic WNV infections as shown by nucleic acid testing (NAT) of the US blood supply (1) indicate that ≈3 million WNV infections occurred in humans during 1999– 2008.

Because the immune system elicits WNV neutralizing antibodies in response to WNV infection, detectable levels of WNV neutralizing antibodies in the blood of persons with previous WNV infection is expected. Consequently, lots of immune globulin-intravenous (human) (IGIV) manufactured from plasma collected in the United States contain WNV neutralizing antibodies (2). Those IGIV lots, each prepared from several thousand plasma donations to ensure a broad spectrum of antibodies, can be used as an epidemiologic tool that enables the surveillance of thousands of persons in a community through analysis of comparatively few samples. In this study, we demonstrated the increasing trend of WNV-neutralizing antibody titers in lots of IGIV.

Comparing these titers with those of persons with confirmed past WNV infection provides an independent measure of the percentage of the US population previously infected with WNV. Several WNV vaccine trials are ongoing or imminent, so information about the prevalence of past WNV infection in the United States is valuable for planning the demonstration of vaccine efficacy. Low incidence and lack of highly WNV-endemic areas in the United States preclude classic vaccine field trials because of study size requirements and cost-logistics difficulties.

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West Nile Virus Infection, United States | CDC EID

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