Ann Gastroenterol Surg. 2018 Jan 24;2(2):106-115. doi: 10.1002/ags3.12059. eCollection 2018 Mar.
Precision medicine based on surgical oncology in the era of genome-scale analysis and genome editing technology.
Accumulated evidence suggests that multiple molecular and cellular interactions promote cancer evolution in vivo. Surgical oncology is of growing significance to a comprehensive understanding of the malignant diseases for therapeutic application. We have analyzed more than 1000 clinical samples from surgically resected tissue to identify molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets for advanced malignancies. Cancer stemness and mitotic instability were then determined as the essential predictors of aggressive phenotype with poor prognosis. Recently, whole genome/exome sequencing showed a mutational landscape underlying phenotype heterogeneity in caners. In addition, integrated genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, metabolic, proteomic and phenomic analyses elucidated several molecular subtypes that cluster in liver, pancreatic, biliary, esophageal and gastroenterological cancers. Identification of each molecular subtype is expected to realize the precise medicine targeting subtype-specific molecules; however, there are obstacle limitations to determine matching druggable targets or synthetic lethal interactions. Current breakthroughs in genome editing technology can provide us with unprecedented opportunity to recapitulate subtype-specific pathophysiology in vitro and in vivo. Given a great potential, on-demand editing system can design actionable strategy and revolutionize precision cancer medicine based on surgical oncology.
cancer stemness; genome editing; mitotic instability; molecular subtype; precision medicine