Revised text to state that craniopharyngiomas without calcification may be confused with other tumor types, including germ cell tumors, hypothalamic/chiasmatic astrocytomas, or Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Biopsy or resection is required to confirm the diagnosis.
Added text to state that an understanding of the complex variations in how the tumors grow anatomically may help facilitate gross-total resection (cited Morisako et al. as reference 7).
Revised text to state that newer radiation technologies such as intensity-modulated photon therapy and proton therapy may reduce the radiation dose to uninvolved parts of the brain and spare normal tissue.
Revised text to state that tumor progression remains a concern, and it is usually not possible to repeat a full course of standard fractionated radiation.
Added text to state that case reports demonstrating dramatic tumor response to BRAFinhibitors in adults with papillary craniopharyngiomas suggest that there may be a role for BRAF inhibitor therapy in the rare setting of a child with a papillary craniopharyngioma (cited Aylwin et al. and Roque et al. as references 15 and 16, respectively).
Added text to state that in one series of 261 patients diagnosed with craniopharyngiomas before 2000, hypothalamic involvement was associated with lower overall survival, impaired quality-of-life, and severe obesity (cited Sterkenburg et al. as reference 1 and level of evidence 3iA).
Added text to state that children who undergo complete resection or subtotal resection may develop obesity, suggesting that a predilection to obesity may be a component of the disease itself, as opposed to the result of direct hypothalamic injury (cited Tan et al. as reference 10 and level of evidence 3iC).
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weblog.maimonides.edu/farmacia/archives/0216_Admin_FarmEcon.pdf - //
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