Added text about subclonal ALK mutations in neuroblastoma (cited Bellini et al. as a reference 46).
Revised text to state that in a Children's Oncology Group (COG) study investigating the effect of histology, among other factors, on outcome, 87% of 915 children with stage 1 and stage 2 neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification were treated with initial surgery and observation.
Added text to state that the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group collaboration has also defined techniques for detecting and quantifying neuroblastoma in bone marrow, both at diagnosis and after treatment. Quantification of this disease may result in more accurate assessment of response to treatment, but has not yet been applied to any clinical trials (cited Burchill et al. as reference 19).
Revised text to state that in an overall surveillance plan, which includes urinary vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid testing, one of the most reliable imaging tests to detect disease progression or recurrence is the 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scan. Also added text to state that cross-sectional imaging with computed tomography scans is controversial because of the amount of radiation received and the low proportion of relapses detected with this modality (cited Owens et al. as reference 41).
Added text to state that whether a gross-total resection is beneficial either before or after induction chemotherapy is controversial (cited De Ioris et al. as reference 11).
Added text about the results of the COG A3973 study and a single-center retrospective study on how the degree of resection affects outcome of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma (cited von Allmen et al. as reference 12 and level of evidence 3iiA and Englum et al. as reference 13 and level of evidence 3iiD).
Added Elborai et al. as reference 17 and level of evidence 3iA.
Added text about the results of a retrospective, single-institution, nonrandomized trial that compared patients who received GM-CSF and 3F8 anti-GD2 antibody therapy after either autologous stem cell transplantation or conventional chemotherapy (cited Kushner et al. as reference 26).
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