03/10/2015 11:30 PM EDT
Source: National Library of Medicine
Related MedlinePlus Page: Craniofacial Abnormalities
Related MedlinePlus Page: Craniofacial Abnormalities
What is Bowen-Conradi syndrome?
Bowen-Conradi syndrome is a disorder that affects many parts of the body and is usually fatal in infancy. Affected individuals have a low birth weight, experience feeding problems, and grow very slowly. Their head is unusually small overall (microcephaly), but is longer than expected compared with its width (dolicocephaly). Characteristic facial features include a prominent, high-bridged nose and an unusually small jaw (micrognathia) and chin. Affected individuals typically have pinky fingers that are curved toward or away from the ring finger (fifth finger clinodactyly) or permanently flexed (camptodactyly), feet with soles that are rounded outward (rocker-bottom feet), and restricted joint movement.
Other features that occur in some affected individuals include seizures; structural abnormalities of the kidneys, heart, brain, or other organs; and an opening in the lip (cleft lip) with or without an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate). Affected males may have the opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis (hypospadias) or undescended testes (cryptorchidism).
Babies with Bowen-Conradi syndrome do not achieve developmental milestones such as smiling or sitting, and they usually do not survive more than 6 months.
How common is Bowen-Conradi syndrome?
Bowen-Conradi syndrome is common in the Hutterite population in Canada and the United States; it occurs in approximately 1 per 355 newborns in all three Hutterite sects (leuts). A few individuals from outside the Hutterite community with signs and symptoms similar to Bowen-Conradi syndrome have been described in the medical literature. Researchers differ as to whether these individuals have Bowen-Conradi syndrome or a similar but distinct disorder.
What genes are related to Bowen-Conradi syndrome?
Bowen-Conradi syndrome is caused by a mutation in the EMG1 gene. This gene provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in the production of cellular structures called ribosomes, which process the cell's genetic instructions to create new proteins. Ribosomes are assembled in a cell compartment called the nucleolus.
The particular EMG1 gene mutation known to cause Bowen-Conradi syndrome is thought to make the protein unstable, resulting in a decrease in the amount of EMG1 protein that is available in the nucleolus. A shortage of this protein in the nucleolus would impair ribosome production, which may reduce cell growth and division (proliferation); however, it is unknown how EMG1 gene mutations lead to the particular signs and symptoms of Bowen-Conradi syndrome.
Read more about the EMG1 gene.
How do people inherit Bowen-Conradi syndrome?
This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.
Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of Bowen-Conradi syndrome?
These resources address the diagnosis or management of Bowen-Conradi syndrome and may include treatment providers.
You might also find information on the diagnosis or management of Bowen-Conradi syndrome inEducational resources and Patient support.
General information about the diagnosis and management of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. Read more about genetic testing, particularly the difference between clinical tests and research tests.
To locate a healthcare provider, see How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.
Where can I find additional information about Bowen-Conradi syndrome?
You may find the following resources about Bowen-Conradi syndrome helpful. These materials are written for the general public.
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for healthcare professionals and researchers.
What other names do people use for Bowen-Conradi syndrome?
- Bowen-Conradi Hutterite syndrome
- Bowen Hutterite syndrome
- Bowen syndrome, Hutterite type
- Hutterite syndrome
What if I still have specific questions about Bowen-Conradi syndrome?
Where can I find general information about genetic conditions?
The Handbook provides basic information about genetics in clear language.
- What does it mean if a disorder seems to run in my family?
- What are the different ways in which a genetic condition can be inherited?
- If a genetic disorder runs in my family, what are the chances that my children will have the condition?
- Why are some genetic conditions more common in particular ethnic groups?
These links provide additional genetics resources that may be useful.
What glossary definitions help with understanding Bowen-Conradi syndrome?
autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; camptodactyly ; cell ; cleft palate ; clinodactyly ; cryptorchidism ;gene ; hypospadias ; inherited ; joint ; microcephaly ; micrognathia ; mutation ; nucleolus ; palate ;population ; proliferation ; protein ; recessive ; ribosomes ; syndrome ; testes
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.
See also Understanding Medical Terminology.
References (6 links)
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.