Data and Statistics
CDC’s research shows that use of medication during pregnancy is common and increasing over time. Click on the “Read Summary” links to learn more about each study.
Use of Medication in Pregnancy
- A 2011 study using U.S. data from 1976-2008 reported that most women (about 90%) take at least one medication during pregnancy and 70% take at least one prescription medication.
- Over the last 30 years,
- First trimester use of prescription medications has increased more than 60%
- First trimester use of 4 or more medications nearly tripled and use of 4 or more medications anytime during pregnancy more than doubled
- A 2005 study reported that most women take non-prescription, sometimes called over-the-counter (OTC), medications at some point during pregnancy:
- Acetaminophen, commonly used for pain relief, was used by about 65% of pregnant women.
- Ibuprofen, another common pain reliever, was used by about 18% of women during pregnancy.
- Pseudoephedrine, a decongestant, was used by about 15% of pregnant women.
- In a study of pregnancies between 1998–2005, 4.5% of women reported using an antidepressant (frequently used to treat depression or anxiety) 3 months before becoming pregnant or during the pregnancy.
- Use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) was reported most often (3.8%), followed by bupropion [Wellbutrin®] (0.7%).
- There was a decline (3.1% to 2.3%) in reported use of antidepressants between the first and second month after conception, which appears to be related to the time women find out they are pregnant.
- Data from four states showed that the frequency of reported antidepressant use during pregnancy increased from 2.5% in 1998 to 8.1% in 2005.
- A recent study of pregnant and nonpregnant women 18-44 years old (from 2005-2009) showed that half of pregnant and nonpregnant women with depression received treatment with prescription medication as the most common form of treatment.
- In a study of pregnancies between 1998–2004, 10.9% of women reported using an herbal product (not including prenatal vitamins) 3 months before becoming pregnant or during pregnancy.
- During pregnancy, prevalence was 9.4%, and use was highest in the first trimester.
- Higher prevalence was associated with age greater than 30 years and greater than a high school education.
- Ginger and ephedra were the most commonly reported herbal products used early in pregnancy; use of teas and chamomile were commonly reported throughout pregnancy.
- In a study of U.S. pregnancies between 1997–2003, 29.7% of women reported using antibiotics 3 months before becoming pregnant or while pregnant.
- Two percent of women reported antibiotic use 3 months before becoming pregnant.
- Antibiotic use increased during pregnancy, peaking at 5.8% during the fourth month.
- Penicillins were the most frequently reported antibiotics, used by 5.9% of pregnant women.