sábado, 10 de enero de 2015

Data and Statistics | Birth Defects | NCBDDD | CDC

Data and Statistics | Birth Defects | NCBDDD | CDC

CDC. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People.

In the United States

  • About one in every 33 babies (about 3%) is born with a birth defect. [Read article]
  • Birth defects are one of the leading causes of infant deaths, accounting for more than 20% of all infant deaths. [Read article]
  • National estimates for 21 selected major birth defects, 2004–2006 [Read summary]
Birth Defects*
Cases per Births
Estimated Annual
Number of Cases
Adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity**
Central nervous system defects
1 in 4,859
Spina bifida without anencephaly
1 in 2,858
1 in 12,235
Eye defects
1 in 5,349
Cardiovascular defects
Common truncus
1 in 13,876
1 in 3,333
1 in 2,518
Atrioventricular septal defect
1 in 2,122
1 in 4,344
Orofacial defects
1 in 1,574
1 in 940
Gastrointestinal defects
Esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula
1 in 4,608
Rectal and large intestinal atresia/stenosis
1 in 2,138
Musculoskeletal defects
Reduction deformity, upper limbs
1 in 2,869
Reduction deformity, lower limbs
1 in 5,949
1 in 2,229
1 in 5,386
Diaphragmatic hernia
1 in 3,836
Adjusted for maternal age**
Chromosomal anomalies
Trisomy 13
1 in 7,906
1 in 691
Trisomy 18
1 in 3,762
*The national estimates data come from 14 birth defects surveillance programs: Arkansas, Arizona, California [8-county Central Valley], Colorado, Georgia [5-county metropolitan Atlanta], Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Puerto Rico, Texas, and Utah. The number of live births represented by these 14 programs from 2004–2006 was 4,038,506.
** For this study, researchers took into account maternal age (for Trisomy 13, 21, and 18) and maternal race/ethnicity, which allows state and local programs to use these estimates as a point of reference for comparison with future prevalence estimates. Adjustments are based on the United States live birth population, 2004–2006.
  • Folic acid is a B vitamin that, if taken before and during early pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects, which are major birth defects of the baby's brain and spine (Anencephaly and spina bifida). In 1996, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated that by January 1, 1998 all grain products labeled as ‘enriched’, such as breads, cereals, and rice, have folic acid added to them to help reduce the risk of neural tube defects. This is known as folic acid fortification. After folic acid fortification was started, there was a 36% decrease in the prevalence of spina bifida and a 17% decrease in the prevalence of anencephaly. [Read article]


Many birth defects vary by racial or ethnic group. Investigating these differences will help us to understand why some birth defects occur more or less often in certain groups and will lead to future efforts to reduce disparities. [Read summary]
Compared with infants of non-Hispanic white mothers,
Infants of non-Hispanic black or African-American mothers had
Infants of Hispanic mothers had
Higher birth prevalence of these birth defects:
Lower birth prevalence of these birth defects
Higher birth prevalence of these birth defects:
Lower birth prevalence of these birth defects
Tetralogy of Fallot
Lower limb reduction defects
Trisomy 18
Cleft palate
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate
Esophageal atresia or tracheoesophageal fistula
Down syndrome
Spina bifida
Down syndrome
Tetralogy of Fallot
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Cleft palate
Esophageal atresia or tracheoesophageal fistula

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