For Immediate Release
Wednesday, March 28, 2012
Wednesday, March 28, 2012
NIH scientists resolve how chromosomal mix-ups lead to tumors
|What:||A new study by scientists from the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), part of the National Institutes of Health, resolves longstanding questions about the origin of recurrent chromosomal rearrangements — known as translocations — that drive lymphomas and leukemias in humans. Translocations occur when broken strands of DNA from one chromosome are erroneously joined with those of another chromosome, thus deregulating genetic information and leading to cell transformation. Sometimes chromosomal rearrangements can be beneficial, in that they enable the immune system to respond to a vast number of microorganisms and viruses. However, translocations can result in tumors. The study was reported in the journal Nature.|
Specific chromosomal translocations driving human cancer have been known since 1960, when scientists in Philadelphia (Peter Nowell and David Hungerford) first visualized one such lesion in patients suffering from chronic myeloid leukemia, an aggressive form of cancer in the blood. The origin of such malignant rearrangements, however, has been unclear. At least three theories have been put forward to explain their etiology:
The new results not only clarify the origin of tumor-inducing translocations, but they also suggest that finding ways to stop AID could potentially prevent the development of many human cancers.
This work was also supported by the NIH’s National Cancer Institute (NCI) and other organizations.
|Article:||Ofir Hakim et al. DNA damage defines sites of recurrent chromosomal translocations in B lymphocytes. Nature DOI: 10.1038/nature10909. [Epub ahead of print]|
|Who:||Rafael Casellas, Ph.D., Chief, Genomics and Immunity Section, NIAMS, and Adjunct Investigator, NCI, is available to comment on the study. |
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