Prevent Unintentional Poisoning
On average, 87 people die each day as a result of unintentional poisoning; another 2,277 are treated in emergency departments. And the number of deaths is rising. Learn what you can do to reduce your—or a loved one's—risk.
What You Should KnowA poison is any substance, including medications, that is harmful to your body if too much is eaten, inhaled, injected, or absorbed through the skin.
An unintentional poisoning occurs when a person taking or giving too much of a substance did not mean to cause harm.
- In 2009, a total of 31,758 people in the United States died from unintentional poisoning.
- Unintentional poisoning deaths are on the rise in the United States, increasing by 160% from 1999 to 2009.
- 91% of unintentional poisoning deaths are a result of drug overdose. Drugs commonly involved in unintentional poisoning deaths include opioid pain medications such as methadone, hydrocodone, or oxycodone.
- In 2010, over 2,000 people a day—a total of 831,295 were seen in emergency departments because of poisoning. Nearly a quarter of these patients (206,479) were hospitalized or transferred to another facility for treatment.
- More than 60,000 young children are seen in emergency departments each year because they got into medicines while their parents or caregivers were not looking.
Are You or Your Loved Ones At Risk?While unintentional poisoning can affect people at all ages and from all walks of life, certain groups are at a greater risk of dying by unintentional poisoning:
- Many more men than women die of unintentional poisoning.
- American Natives/Alaskan Indians have the highest death rate, followed by Whites and then Blacks.
- Middle-aged adults have the highest unintentional poisoning death rates.
What You Can DoKeep yourself and others safe from unintentional poisoning
CDC's Policy Impact: Prescription Painkiller Overdoses summarizes information about deaths and emergency department visits resulting from prescription painkiller overdoses. Learn about drug overdose trends, the most common drugs involved, regions and populations most severely affected, and recommendations for prevention.
- Only take prescription medications that are prescribed to you by a healthcare professional. Misusing or abusing prescription or over-the-counter medications is not a "safe" alternative to illicit substance use.
- Never take larger or more frequent doses of your medications, particularly prescription pain medications, to try to get faster or more powerful effects.
- Never share or sell your prescription drugs.
- Follow directions on the label when you give or take medicines. Read all warning labels. Some medicines cannot be taken safely when you take other medicines or drink alcohol.
- Turn on a light when you give or take medicines at night so that you know you have the correct amount of the right medicine.
- To avoid drug interactions, check with your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking more than one prescription medication at a time.
- Monitor the use of medicines prescribed for children and teenagers, such as medicines for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD (SAMHSA 2006).
- Never tell children medicine is candy to get them to take it, even if your child does not like to take his or her medicine.
- Dispose of unused, unneeded, or expired prescription drugs. Follow federal guidelines for how to do this (FDA 2011).
- Participate in National Drug Take Back days recognized by the Drug Enforcement Administration or local take back programs in your community.
- Store all medicines and household products up and away and out of sight, for example in a cabinet where a child cannot reach them.
- Keep all prescription medicines (especially opioid pain medications, such as those containing methadone, hydrocodone, or oxycodone), over-the-counter medicines (including pain or fever relievers and cough and cold medicines), vitamins and herbals in a secure place.
- Keep medicines in their original bottles or containers.
- When you are taking or giving medicines or are using household products:
- Do not put your next dose on the counter or table where children can reach them—it only takes seconds for a child to get them.
- If you have to do something else while taking medicine, such as answer the phone, take any young children with you.
- Secure the child safety cap completely every time you use a medicine.
- After using them, do not leave medicines or household products out. As soon as you are done with them, put them away and out of sight in a cabinet where a child cannot reach them.
- Be aware of any legal or illegal drugs that guests may bring into your home. Ask guests to store drugs where children cannot find them. Children can easily get into pillboxes, purses, backpacks, or coat pockets.
What to do if a poisoning occurs
Put the Poison Help number, 1-800-222-1222, on or near every home telephone and save it on your cell phone. The line is open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
- Remain calm.
- Call 911 if you have a poison emergency and the victim has collapsed or is not breathing. If the victim is awake and alert, dial 1-800-222-1222. Try to have this information ready:
- the victim's age and weight
- the container or bottle of the poison if available
- the time of the poison exposure
- the address where the poisoning occurred
- Stay on the phone and follow the instructions from the emergency operator or poison control center.
- CDC's Policy Impact: Prescription Painkiller OverdosesProvides information on prescription painkiller trends, what drugs are involved, who's at risk, and prevention recommendations.
- CDC's Vital Signs: Prescription Painkiller Overdoses in the USInformation on the epidemic levels of prescription painkiller overdoses including latest findings, risk factors, U.S. State information, and what can be done.
- CDC Injury Center: Director's View Blog-Prescription Drug Overdose in the United States: Blog Q&A
Q&A's on prescription drug overdoses in the United States, what groups are at risk, state impacts, and what is and can be done to prevent prescription drug overdoses.
- Poisoning in the United StatesOverview of poisoning in the United States, including occurrence, costs and risk factors.
- Unintentional Poisoning: CDC Activities
Summary of research and programs CDC's Injury Center is carrying out in the area of unintentional poisoning prevention.
- Poison Prevention Tips
Tips for keeping you, your family and your friends safe from poisonings.
- Protect the Ones You Love: Child Injuries Are PreventableResources for parents— including fact sheets, podcasts, and e-cards— offer tips on protecting children from poisoning, as well as other leading causes of child injury.
- Poisoning and Methadone-related Deaths
Overview of methadone-related poisoning deaths, including trends and state-specific data.
- Poison Prevention Month 2012
Resources related to Poison Prevention Month 2012.
- FDA Committed to Addressing Growing National Overdose Problem
- Up and Away and Out of Sight
- A Cup of Health with CDC: Keep a Lid on It [PODCAST-59 seconds]
Information about medicine poisonings in children and prevention tips.
- A Minute of Health with CDC: Keep a Lid on It [PODCAST-59 seconds]
Prevention tips for medicine poisonings in children.
- Protecting Yourself and Your Family Against Poisonings [PODCAST - 2:59 minutes]
Poisoning prevention tips for audiences of all ages.
- Unintentional Poisoning Deaths [PODCAST - 6:12 minutes]
Summary of a recent study on unintentional poisoning deaths, which indicated that poisoning death rates in the United States increased by 63% from 1999–2004.
- Protect the Ones You Love from Poisoning [PODCAST - 2:34 minutes]
This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from poisoning, one of the leading causes of child injury.
- Cough and Cold Medications for Children (English) [PODCAST - 2:29 minutes]
This podcast discusses the safety concerns of cough and cold medications and children.
- Medicamentos para la tos y el resfriado y los niños (Spanish) [PODCAST - 1:48 minutes]
Este podcast habla sobre las preocupaciones de salud relacionadas con el consumo de medicamentos para la tos y el resfriado en los niños, sin la supervisión de los padres.
- All Injury Prevention Podcasts
- Send a Health-e-Card on Preventing Poisoning