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Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 | CDC EID

EID Journal Home > Volume 16, Number 12–December 2010
Volume 16, Number 12–December 2010
Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3

Benjamin Michel, Guillaume Fournier, François Lieffrig, Bérénice Costes, and Alain Vanderplasschen Comments to Author
Author affiliations: University of Liège, Liège, Belgium (B. Michel, G. Fournier, B. Costes, A. Vanderplasschen); and Centre d'Economie Rurale Groupe, Marloie, Belgium (F. Lieffrig)

Suggested citation for this article

The recently designated cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is an emerging agent that causes fatal disease in common and koi carp. Since its emergence in the late 1990s, this highly contagious pathogen has caused severe financial losses in common and koi carp culture industries worldwide. In addition to its economic role, recent studies suggest that CyHV-3 may have a role in fundamental research. CyHV-3 has the largest genome among viruses in the order Herpesvirales and serves as a model for mutagenesis of large DNA viruses. Other studies suggest that the skin of teleost fish represents an efficient portal of entry for certain viruses. The effect of temperature on viral replication suggests that the body temperature of its poikilotherm host could regulate the outcome of the infection (replicative vs. nonreplicative). Recent advances with regard to CyHV-3 provide a role for this virus in fundamental and applied research.

The common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) is a freshwater fish and one of the most economically valuable species in aquaculture; worldwide, 2.9 million metric tons are produced each year (1). Common carp are usually cultivated for human consumption. Koi (C. carpio koi) are an often-colorful subspecies of carp, usually grown for personal pleasure and competitive exhibitions. In the late 1990s, a highly contagious and virulent disease began to cause severe economic losses in these 2 carp industries worldwide (2) (Figure 1). The rapid spread was attributed to international fish trade and koi shows around the world (3). The causative agent of the disease was initially called koi herpesvirus because of its morphologic resemblance to viruses of the order Herpesvirales (3). The virus was subsequently called carp interstitial nephritis and gill necrosis virus because of the associated lesions (4). Recently, on the basis of homology of its genome with previously described cyprinid herpesviruses (5), the virus was assigned to family Alloherpesviridae, genus Cyprinivirus, species Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 and renamed cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). Because of the economic losses caused by this virus, CyHV-3 rapidly became a subject for applied research. However, recent studies have demonstrated that CyHV-3 is also useful for fundamental research. We therefore summarized recent advances in CyHV-3 applied and fundamental research.

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Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 | CDC EID

Suggested Citation for this Article

Michel B, Fournier G, Lieffrig F, Costes B, Vanderplasschen A. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2010 Dec [date cited].

DOI: 10.3201/eid1612.100593

Comments to the Authors

Please use the form below to submit correspondence to the authors or contact them at the following address:

Alain Vanderplasschen, Immunology-Vaccinology (B43b), Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liège, B-4000 Liège, Belgium
; email:

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