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Integrated therapy for HIV and tuberculosis | AIDS Research and Therapy | Full Text

Integrated therapy for HIV and tuberculosis | AIDS Research and Therapy | Full Text

Biomed Central

AIDS Research and Therapy

Integrated therapy for HIV and tuberculosis

  • Weerawat Manosuthi,
  • Surasak Wiboonchutikul and
  • Somnuek SungkanuparphEmail author
AIDS Research and Therapy201613:22
DOI: 10.1186/s12981-016-0106-y
Received: 14 March 2016
Accepted: 2 May 2016
Published: 12 May 2016


Tuberculosis (TB) has been the most common opportunistic infection and cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Clinical manifestations of TB vary and depend on the degree of immunodeficiency. Sputum microscopy and culture with drug-susceptibility testing are recommended as a standard method for diagnosing active TB. TB-related mortality in HIV-infected patients is high especially during the first few months of treatment. Integrated therapy of both HIV and TB is feasible and efficient to control the diseases and yield better survival. Randomized clinical trials have shown that early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves survival of HIV-infected patients with TB. A delay in initiating ART is common among patients referred from TB to HIV separate clinics and this delay may be associated with increased mortality risk. Integration of care for both HIV and TB using a single facility and a single healthcare provider to deliver care for both diseases is a successful model. For TB treatment, HIV-infected patients should receive at least the same regimens and duration of TB treatment as HIV-uninfected patients. Currently, a 2-month initial intensive phase of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, followed by 4 months of continuation phase of isoniazid and rifampin is considered as the standard treatment of drug-susceptible TB. ART should be initiated in all HIV-infected patients with TB, irrespective of CD4 cell count. The optimal timing to initiate ART is within the first 8 weeks of starting antituberculous treatment and within the first 2 weeks for patients who have CD4 cell counts <50 cells/mm3. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART remains a first-line regimen for HIV-infected patients with TB in resource-limited settings. Although a standard dose of both efavirenz and nevirapine can be used, efavirenz is preferred because of more favorable treatment outcomes. In the settings where raltegravir is accessible, doubling the dose to 800 mg twice daily is recommended. Adverse reactions to either antituberculous or antiretroviral drugs, as well as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, are common in patients receiving integrated therapy. Early recognition and appropriate management of these consequences can reinforce the successful integrated therapy in HIV-infected patients with TB.


HIV Tuberculosis Treatment Integrated therapy

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