MMWR- Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
MMWR news synopsis for November 4, 2016
Effects of Maternal Age and Age-Specific Preterm Birth Rates on Overall Preterm Birth Rates — United States, 2007 and 2014
Successful teen pregnancy prevention efforts have helped reduce the number of babies born too soon. Fewer births to U.S. teens and young mothers between 2007 and 2014 translated to lower preterm birth rates. These findings point to a dual benefit of teen pregnancy prevention efforts; preventing teen pregnancy also helps to reduce the number of babies born too soon. Researchers used age-specific data on trends in births overall and in preterm births to determine the effects of changes in maternal age on preterm birth. Declines in births to teens and other mothers under 25 years had the largest impact on the overall decline in the preterm birth rate. Increases in births to mothers 30 and older, who have higher rates of preterm birth, lessened the overall decline. This report underscores that, because risk factors for preterm birth can vary by age, healthcare and public health professionals should work with women during each stage of their reproductive life to address risk. CDC promotes a five-part strategy to prevent preterm birth, including preventing unintended pregnancy and improving access to care to help women enter pregnancy as healthy as possible.
Ocular Syphilis — Eight Jurisdictions, 2014–2015
All patients diagnosed with syphilis who have ocular manifestations should be immediately treated for neurosyphilis and should be referred for formal ophthalmologic examination. Additionally, all patients with inflammatory eye disease without a known cause should have an evaluation of syphilis, regardless of risk factors. Ocular syphilis is an inflammatory eye disease caused by syphilis infection. Signs and symptoms include redness, blurry vision, and vision loss. Clusters of ocular syphilis were reported in 2015, suggesting an outbreak of ocular syphilis. Cases of ocular syphilis were evaluated in eight jurisdictions over a two-year period. Most jurisdictions reported an increase in ocular syphilis cases from 2014 to 2015. Ocular syphilis was diagnosed in all stages of syphilis and in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. The increase in cases could be due to increased recognition or to a true increase in the proportion of syphilis cases with ocular disease. Prompt identification of ocular syphilis, urgent ophthalmologic evaluation, and appropriate treatment are critical in the prevention and management of visual symptoms of ocular syphilis.
Recommendations for Use of Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccines in HIV-Infected Persons — Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2016
HIV-infected people age 2 months or older should routinely receive meningococcal conjugate vaccine. At its June 2016 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine use of meningococcal conjugate (serogroups A, C, W, and Y) vaccine for people age 2 months or older with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. ACIP has previously recommended routine vaccination of people age 2 months or older who have certain medical conditions that increase risk for meningococcal disease. Routine vaccination with meningococcal conjugate vaccine is also recommended for all healthy adolescents in the United States.