lunes, 15 de agosto de 2016

Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version - National Cancer Institute

Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version - National Cancer Institute

National Cancer Institute

Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Health Professional Version


General Information About Breast Cancer

This summary discusses primary epithelial breast cancers in women. The breast is rarely affected by other tumors such as lymphomas, sarcomas, or melanomas. Refer to the following PDQ summaries for more information on these cancer types:
Breast cancer also affects men and children and may occur during pregnancy, although it is rare in these populations. Refer to the following PDQ summaries for more information:

Incidence and Mortality

Estimated new cases and deaths from breast cancer (women only) in the United States in 2016:[1]
  • New cases: 246,660.
  • Deaths: 40,450.
Breast cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer in U.S. women, with an estimated 61,000 cases of in situ disease, 246,660 cases of invasive disease, and 40,450 deaths expected in 2016.[1] Thus, fewer than one of six women diagnosed with breast cancer die of the disease. By comparison, it is estimated that about 72,160 American women will die of lung cancer in 2016.[1] Men account for 1% of breast cancer cases and breast cancer deaths (refer to the Special Populations section in the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Screening for more information).
Widespread adoption of screening increases breast cancer incidence in a given population and changes the characteristics of cancers detected, with increased incidence of lower-risk cancers, premalignant lesions, and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). (Refer to the Ductal Carcinoma In Situ section in the Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Pathology section in the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Screening for more information.) Population studies from the United States [2] and the United Kingdom [3] demonstrate an increase in DCIS and invasive breast cancer incidence since the 1970s, attributable to the widespread adoption of both postmenopausal hormone therapy and screening mammography. In the last decade, women have refrained from using postmenopausal hormones, and breast cancer incidence has declined, but not to the levels seen before the widespread use of screening mammography.[4]


ENLARGEDrawing of female breast anatomy showing  the lymph nodes, nipple, areola, chest wall, ribs, muscle, fatty tissue, lobe, ducts, and lobules.
Anatomy of the female breast. The nipple and areola are shown on the outside of the breast. The lymph nodes, lobes, lobules, ducts, and other parts of the inside of the breast are also shown.

Risk and Protective Factors

Increasing age is the most important risk factor for breast cancer.[2] Other risk factors for breast cancer include the following:
  • Family health history.[5]
  • Major inheritance susceptibility.[6-8]
    • Germline mutation of the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, and other breast cancer susceptibility genes.[9-13]
  • Alcohol intake.[14]
  • Breast tissue density (mammographic).[15,16]
  • Estrogen (endogenous):[17-20]
    • Menstrual history (early menarche/late menopause).[21-23]
    • Nulliparity.
    • Older age at first birth.
  • Hormone therapy history:[24]
    • Combination estrogen plus progestin hormone replacement therapy (HRT).[25-28]
  • Obesity.[29,30]
  • Personal history of breast cancer.[31]
  • Personal history of proliferative forms of benign breast disease.[32-38]
  • Race.[39,40]
  • Radiation exposure to the breast/chest.[41,42]
Age-specific risk estimates are available to help counsel and design screening strategies for women with a family history of breast cancer.[43,44]
Of all women with breast cancer, 5% to 10% may have a germline mutation of the genesBRCA1 and BRCA2.[45] Specific mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 are more common in women of Jewish ancestry.[46] The estimated lifetime risk of developing breast cancer for women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is 40% to 85%. Carriers with a history of breast cancer have an increased risk of contralateral disease that may be as high as 5% per year.[47] Male BRCA2 mutation carriers also have an increased risk of breast cancer.[48]
Mutations in either the BRCA1 or the BRCA2 gene also confer an increased risk of ovarian cancer [48,49] or other primary cancers.[48,49] Once a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation has been identified, other family members can be referred for genetic counseling and testing.[50-53] (Refer to the PDQ summaries on Genetics of Breast and Gynecologic CancersBreast Cancer Prevention; and Breast Cancer Screening for more information.)
(Refer to the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Prevention for more information about factors that increase the risk of breast cancer.)
Protective factors and interventions to reduce the risk of female breast cancer include the following:
  • Estrogen use (after hysterectomy).[54-56]
  • Exercise.[57-59]
  • Early pregnancy.[23,60,61]
  • Breast feeding.[62]
  • Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs).[63]
  • Aromatase inhibitors or inactivators.[64,65]
  • Risk-reducing mastectomy.[66]
  • Risk-reducing oophorectomy or ovarian ablation.[67-70]
(Refer to the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Prevention for more information about factors that decrease the risk of breast cancer.)


Clinical trials have established that screening asymptomatic women using mammography, with or without clinical breast examination, decreases breast cancer mortality. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Breast Cancer Screening for more information.)


Patient evaluation

When breast cancer is suspected, patient management generally includes the following:
  • Confirmation of the diagnosis.
  • Evaluation of the stage of disease.
  • Selection of therapy.
The following tests and procedures are used to diagnose breast cancer:
  • Mammography.
  • Ultrasound.
  • Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), if clinically indicated.
  • Biopsy.

Contralateral disease

Pathologically, breast cancer can be a multicentric and bilateral disease. Bilateral disease is somewhat more common in patients with infiltrating lobular carcinoma. At 10 years after diagnosis, the risk of a primary breast cancer in the contralateral breast ranges from 3% to 10%, although endocrine therapy decreases that risk.[71-73] The development of a contralateral breast cancer is associated with an increased risk of distant recurrence.[74] When BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers were diagnosed before age 40 years, the risk of a contralateral breast cancer reached nearly 50% in the ensuing 25 years.[75,76]
Patients who have breast cancer will undergo bilateral mammography at the time of diagnosis to rule out synchronous disease. To detect either recurrence in the ipsilateral breast in patients treated with breast-conserving surgery or a second primary cancer in the contralateral breast, patients will continue to have regular breast physical examinations and mammograms.
The role of MRI in screening the contralateral breast and monitoring women treated with breast-conserving therapy continues to evolve. Because an increased detection rate of mammographically occult disease has been demonstrated, the selective use of MRI for additional screening is occurring more frequently despite the absence of randomized, controlled data. Because only 25% of MRI-positive findings represent malignancy, pathologic confirmation before treatment is recommended. Whether this increased detection rate will translate into improved treatment outcome is unknown.[77-79]

Prognostic and Predictive Factors

Breast cancer is commonly treated by various combinations of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy. Prognosis and selection of therapy may be influenced by the following clinical and pathology features (based on conventional histology and immunohistochemistry):[80]
  • Menopausal status of the patient.
  • Stage of the disease.
  • Grade of the primary tumor.
  • Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of the tumor.
  • Human epidermal growth factor type 2 receptor (HER2/neu) overexpression and/or amplification.
  • Histologic type. Breast cancer is classified into a variety of histologic types, some of which have prognostic importance. Favorable histologic types include mucinous, medullary, and tubular carcinomas.[81-83]
The use of molecular profiling in breast cancer includes the following:[84]
  • ER and PR status testing.
  • HER2/neu receptor status testing.
  • Gene profile testing by microarray assay or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (e.g., MammaPrint, Oncotype DX).
On the basis of ER, PR, and HER2/neu results, breast cancer is classified as one of the following types:
  • Hormone-receptor positive.
  • HER2/neu positive.
  • Triple negative (ER, PR, and HER2/neu negative).
ER, PR, and HER2 status are important in determining prognosis and in predicting response to endocrine and HER2-directed therapy. The American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists consensus panel has published guidelines to help standardize the performance, interpretation, and reporting of assays used to assess the ER/PR status by immunohistochemistry and HER2 status by immunohistochemistry andin situ hybridization.[85,86]
Gene profile tests include the following:
  • MammaPrint: The first gene profile test to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration was the MammaPrint gene signature. Its prognostic utility primarily targets adjuvant therapy−decision making in women aged 61 years and younger with stage I/II lymph node–negative breast cancer 5 cm or smaller.[87-91] The MINDACTtrial (NCT00433589) will help determine if the assay should be used to decide whether adjuvant chemotherapy may benefit a patient.
  • Oncotype DX: The Oncotype DX 21 gene assay is the gene profile test with the most extensive clinical validation thus far, albeit in a prospective–retrospective fashion. A 21-gene recurrence score (RS) is generated based on the level of expression of each of the 21 genes:
    • RS <18: low risk.
    • RS ≥18 and <31: intermediate-risk.
    • RS ≥31: high risk.
The following trials describe the prognostic and predictive value of multigene assays:
  1. The prognostic ability of the Oncotype DX 21-gene assay was assessed in two randomized trials.
    • The NSABP B-14 trial randomly assigned patients to tamoxifen or placebo; the results favoring tamoxifen changed clinical practice in the late 1980s.[92] Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue was available for 668 patients. The 10-year distant recurrence risk for patients treated with tamoxifen was 7% for those with a low RS, 14% for those with an intermediate RS, and 31% for those with high RS (P < .001).[93]
    • A community-based, case-control study examined the prognostic ability of the RS to predict breast cancer deaths after 10 years in a group of tamoxifen-treated patients and observed a similar prognostic pattern to that seen in patients from NSABP B-14.[94]
  2. Prediction of benefit from chemotherapy in patients with node-negative ER-positive breast cancer was assessed by the tamoxifen alone (n = 227) and the combination arms (n = 424) of the NSABP B-20 trial.[92] Patients in the NSABP B-20 trial were randomly assigned to receive tamoxifen alone or tamoxifen concurrently with methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (MF) or cyclophosphamide with MF (CMF).[95]
    • The 10-year distant disease-free survival (DFS) improved from 60% to 88% by adding chemotherapy to tamoxifen in the high-risk group, while no benefit was observed in the low RS group.[96]
  3. Similar findings were reported in the prospective-retrospective evaluation of Southwestern Oncology Group trial S8814 in lymph node-positive patients treated with tamoxifen with or without cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and fluorouracil (CAF).[97] However, the sample size in this analysis was small, follow-up was only 5 years, and the prognostic impact of having positive nodes needs to be taken into consideration.
    • Of note, both analyses (NSABP B-20 and S8814) were underpowered for any conclusive predictive analysis among patients identified as having an intermediate RS.
  4. Results from the TAILORX trial (NCT00310180) may help provide recommendations for those with ER/PR-positive and node-negative disease with an intermediate RS. In this study, a low-risk score was defined as less than 11, intermediate score was 11 to 25, and high-risk score was greater than 25. These cut points differ from those described above.
    Patients in this study with a low-risk score were found to have very low rates of recurrence at 5 years with endocrine therapy.[98] Primary endpoint results from this study are awaited.
    • Rate of invasive DFS was 93.8%.
    • Rate of freedom from recurrence of breast cancer at a distant site was 99.3%.
    • Rate of freedom from recurrence of breast cancer at a distant or local-regional site was 98.7%.
    • Rate of overall survival was 98.0%.
Results from the RxPONDER trial (NCT01272037) will help to determine if there is a benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with ER-positive, node-positive early breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy, and a RS below 25.
Many other gene-based assays may guide treatment decisions in patients with early breast cancer (e.g., Predictor Analysis of Microarray 50 [PAM50] Risk of Recurrence [ROR] score, EndoPredict, Breast Cancer Index).
Although certain rare inherited mutations, such as those of BRCA1 and BRCA2, predispose women to develop breast cancer, prognostic data on BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers who have developed breast cancer are conflicting. These women are at greater risk of developing contralateral breast cancer. (Refer to the Prognosis of BRCA1- and BRCA2-related breast cancer section of the PDQ Genetics of Breast and Gynecologic Cancerssummary for more information.)

Posttherapy Considerations

Hormone replacement therapy

After careful consideration, patients with severe symptoms may be treated with hormone replacement therapy. For more information, refer to the following PDQ summaries:

Related Summaries

Other PDQ summaries containing information related to breast cancer include the following:
  1. American Cancer Society: Cancer Facts and Figures 2016. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, 2016. Available online. Last accessed July 11, 2016.
  2. Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Krapcho M, et al.: SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2007. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, 2010. Also available online. Last accessed June 28, 2016.
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  4. Haas JS, Kaplan CP, Gerstenberger EP, et al.: Changes in the use of postmenopausal hormone therapy after the publication of clinical trial results. Ann Intern Med 140 (3): 184-8, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  5. Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Speizer FE: Risk factors for breast cancer according to family history of breast cancer. For the Nurses' Health Study Research Group. J Natl Cancer Inst 88 (6): 365-71, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
  6. Colditz GA, Kaphingst KA, Hankinson SE, et al.: Family history and risk of breast cancer: nurses' health study. Breast Cancer Res Treat 133 (3): 1097-104, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  7. Malone KE, Daling JR, Doody DR, et al.: Family history of breast cancer in relation to tumor characteristics and mortality in a population-based study of young women with invasive breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 20 (12): 2560-71, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  8. Cybulski C, Wokołorczyk D, Jakubowska A, et al.: Risk of breast cancer in women with a CHEK2 mutation with and without a family history of breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 29 (28): 3747-52, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  9. Goodwin PJ, Phillips KA, West DW, et al.: Breast cancer prognosis in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: an International Prospective Breast Cancer Family Registry population-based cohort study. J Clin Oncol 30 (1): 19-26, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  10. Mavaddat N, Barrowdale D, Andrulis IL, et al.: Pathology of breast and ovarian cancers among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 21 (1): 134-47, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  11. Miki Y, Swensen J, Shattuck-Eidens D, et al.: A strong candidate for the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1. Science 266 (5182): 66-71, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
  12. Futreal PA, Liu Q, Shattuck-Eidens D, et al.: BRCA1 mutations in primary breast and ovarian carcinomas. Science 266 (5182): 120-2, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
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  17. Key TJ, Appleby PN, Reeves GK, et al.: Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of 13 studies. Br J Cancer 105 (5): 709-22, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
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  19. Kaaks R, Berrino F, Key T, et al.: Serum sex steroids in premenopausal women and breast cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). J Natl Cancer Inst 97 (10): 755-65, 2005. [PUBMED Abstract]
  20. Endogenous Hormones and Breast Cancer Collaborative Group: Endogenous sex hormones and breast cancer in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of nine prospective studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 94 (8): 606-16, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  21. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer: Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies. Lancet Oncol 13 (11): 1141-51, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  22. Ritte R, Lukanova A, Tjønneland A, et al.: Height, age at menarche and risk of hormone receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer: a cohort study. Int J Cancer 132 (11): 2619-29, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]
  23. Kampert JB, Whittemore AS, Paffenbarger RS Jr: Combined effect of childbearing, menstrual events, and body size on age-specific breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 128 (5): 962-79, 1988. [PUBMED Abstract]
  24. Breast cancer and hormone replacement therapy: collaborative reanalysis of data from 51 epidemiological studies of 52,705 women with breast cancer and 108,411 women without breast cancer. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Lancet 350 (9084): 1047-59, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  25. Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators: Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 288 (3): 321-33, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  26. Chlebowski RT, Anderson GL, Gass M, et al.: Estrogen plus progestin and breast cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women. JAMA 304 (15): 1684-92, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
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  31. Kotsopoulos J, Chen WY, Gates MA, et al.: Risk factors for ductal and lobular breast cancer: results from the nurses' health study. Breast Cancer Res 12 (6): R106, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  32. Goldacre MJ, Abisgold JD, Yeates DG, et al.: Benign breast disease and subsequent breast cancer: English record linkage studies. J Public Health (Oxf) 32 (4): 565-71, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  33. Kabat GC, Jones JG, Olson N, et al.: A multi-center prospective cohort study of benign breast disease and risk of subsequent breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control 21 (6): 821-8, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  34. Worsham MJ, Raju U, Lu M, et al.: Risk factors for breast cancer from benign breast disease in a diverse population. Breast Cancer Res Treat 118 (1): 1-7, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
  35. Pearlman MD, Griffin JL: Benign breast disease. Obstet Gynecol 116 (3): 747-58, 2010. [PUBMED Abstract]
  36. Vogel VG: Epidemiology, genetics, and risk evaluation of postmenopausal women at risk of breast cancer. Menopause 15 (4 Suppl): 782-9, 2008 Jul-Aug. [PUBMED Abstract]
  37. Degnim AC, Visscher DW, Berman HK, et al.: Stratification of breast cancer risk in women with atypia: a Mayo cohort study. J Clin Oncol 25 (19): 2671-7, 2007. [PUBMED Abstract]
  38. Worsham MJ, Abrams J, Raju U, et al.: Breast cancer incidence in a cohort of women with benign breast disease from a multiethnic, primary health care population. Breast J 13 (2): 115-21, 2007 Mar-Apr. [PUBMED Abstract]
  39. Razzaghi H, Troester MA, Gierach GL, et al.: Mammographic density and breast cancer risk in White and African American Women. Breast Cancer Res Treat 135 (2): 571-80, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  40. Pfeiffer RM, Mitani A, Matsuno RK, et al.: Racial differences in breast cancer trends in the United States (2000-2004). J Natl Cancer Inst 100 (10): 751-2, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  41. Andrieu N, Easton DF, Chang-Claude J, et al.: Effect of chest X-rays on the risk of breast cancer among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers in the international BRCA1/2 carrier cohort study: a report from the EMBRACE, GENEPSO, GEO-HEBON, and IBCCS Collaborators' Group. J Clin Oncol 24 (21): 3361-6, 2006. [PUBMED Abstract]
  42. Bhatia S, Robison LL, Oberlin O, et al.: Breast cancer and other second neoplasms after childhood Hodgkin's disease. N Engl J Med 334 (12): 745-51, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
  43. Claus EB, Risch N, Thompson WD: Autosomal dominant inheritance of early-onset breast cancer. Implications for risk prediction. Cancer 73 (3): 643-51, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
  44. Gail MH, Brinton LA, Byar DP, et al.: Projecting individualized probabilities of developing breast cancer for white females who are being examined annually. J Natl Cancer Inst 81 (24): 1879-86, 1989. [PUBMED Abstract]
  45. Blackwood MA, Weber BL: BRCA1 and BRCA2: from molecular genetics to clinical medicine. J Clin Oncol 16 (5): 1969-77, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  46. Offit K, Gilewski T, McGuire P, et al.: Germline BRCA1 185delAG mutations in Jewish women with breast cancer. Lancet 347 (9016): 1643-5, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
  47. Frank TS, Manley SA, Olopade OI, et al.: Sequence analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2: correlation of mutations with family history and ovarian cancer risk. J Clin Oncol 16 (7): 2417-25, 1998. [PUBMED Abstract]
  48. Cancer risks in BRCA2 mutation carriers. The Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. J Natl Cancer Inst 91 (15): 1310-6, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  49. Ford D, Easton DF, Bishop DT, et al.: Risks of cancer in BRCA1-mutation carriers. Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. Lancet 343 (8899): 692-5, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
  50. Biesecker BB, Boehnke M, Calzone K, et al.: Genetic counseling for families with inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer. JAMA 269 (15): 1970-4, 1993. [PUBMED Abstract]
  51. Berry DA, Parmigiani G, Sanchez J, et al.: Probability of carrying a mutation of breast-ovarian cancer gene BRCA1 based on family history. J Natl Cancer Inst 89 (3): 227-38, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  52. Hoskins KF, Stopfer JE, Calzone KA, et al.: Assessment and counseling for women with a family history of breast cancer. A guide for clinicians. JAMA 273 (7): 577-85, 1995. [PUBMED Abstract]
  53. Statement of the American Society of Clinical Oncology: genetic testing for cancer susceptibility, Adopted on February 20, 1996. J Clin Oncol 14 (5): 1730-6; discussion 1737-40, 1996. [PUBMED Abstract]
  54. Anderson GL, Limacher M, Assaf AR, et al.: Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 291 (14): 1701-12, 2004. [PUBMED Abstract]
  55. LaCroix AZ, Chlebowski RT, Manson JE, et al.: Health outcomes after stopping conjugated equine estrogens among postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 305 (13): 1305-14, 2011. [PUBMED Abstract]
  56. Anderson GL, Chlebowski RT, Aragaki AK, et al.: Conjugated equine oestrogen and breast cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: extended follow-up of the Women's Health Initiative randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Oncol 13 (5): 476-86, 2012. [PUBMED Abstract]
  57. Bernstein L, Henderson BE, Hanisch R, et al.: Physical exercise and reduced risk of breast cancer in young women. J Natl Cancer Inst 86 (18): 1403-8, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
  58. Thune I, Brenn T, Lund E, et al.: Physical activity and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 336 (18): 1269-75, 1997. [PUBMED Abstract]
  59. Adams-Campbell LL, Rosenberg L, Rao RS, et al.: Strenuous physical activity and breast cancer risk in African-American women. J Natl Med Assoc 93 (7-8): 267-75, 2001 Jul-Aug. [PUBMED Abstract]
  60. Pike MC, Krailo MD, Henderson BE, et al.: 'Hormonal' risk factors, 'breast tissue age' and the age-incidence of breast cancer. Nature 303 (5920): 767-70, 1983. [PUBMED Abstract]
  61. Lambe M, Hsieh C, Trichopoulos D, et al.: Transient increase in the risk of breast cancer after giving birth. N Engl J Med 331 (1): 5-9, 1994. [PUBMED Abstract]
  62. Col: Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50302 women with breast cancer and 96973 women without the disease. Lancet 360 (9328): 187-95, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
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  66. Hartmann LC, Schaid DJ, Woods JE, et al.: Efficacy of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy in women with a family history of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 340 (2): 77-84, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  67. Rebbeck TR, Levin AM, Eisen A, et al.: Breast cancer risk after bilateral prophylactic oophorectomy in BRCA1 mutation carriers. J Natl Cancer Inst 91 (17): 1475-9, 1999. [PUBMED Abstract]
  68. Kauff ND, Satagopan JM, Robson ME, et al.: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. N Engl J Med 346 (21): 1609-15, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  69. Rebbeck TR, Lynch HT, Neuhausen SL, et al.: Prophylactic oophorectomy in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. N Engl J Med 346 (21): 1616-22, 2002. [PUBMED Abstract]
  70. Kauff ND, Domchek SM, Friebel TM, et al.: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy for the prevention of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast and gynecologic cancer: a multicenter, prospective study. J Clin Oncol 26 (8): 1331-7, 2008. [PUBMED Abstract]
  71. Rosen PP, Groshen S, Kinne DW, et al.: Factors influencing prognosis in node-negative breast carcinoma: analysis of 767 T1N0M0/T2N0M0 patients with long-term follow-up. J Clin Oncol 11 (11): 2090-100, 1993. [PUBMED Abstract]
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  75. Graeser MK, Engel C, Rhiem K, et al.: Contralateral breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. J Clin Oncol 27 (35): 5887-92, 2009. [PUBMED Abstract]
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  • Updated: August 11, 2016

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