lunes, 20 de julio de 2015

Genome of Emerging Norovirus GII.17, United States, 2014 - Volume 21, Number 8—August 2015 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

full-text ►

Genome of Emerging Norovirus GII.17, United States, 2014 - Volume 21, Number 8—August 2015 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

Volume 21, Number 8—August 2015


Genome of Emerging Norovirus GII.17, United States, 2014

Gabriel I. ParraComments to Author  and Kim Y. Green
Author affiliations: National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA


To determine whether the norovirus strain GII.17 recently detected in Maryland, USA, (Hu/GII.17/Gaithersburg/2014/US) is spreading globally, we characterized the genome. High similarity with the norovirus GII.17 that caused recent outbreaks in Asia indicates that the same strain was present in the United States during the 2014–15 norovirus season (winter).
Noroviruses are major pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis among persons in all age groups. In developing countries, noroviruses are responsible for an estimated 200,000 deaths per year among children <5 years of age (1). These viruses characteristically cause outbreaks in partially enclosed settings such as schools, childcare centers, nursing homes, military facilities, and cruise ships (2).
Noroviruses possess a genome of single-stranded positive-sense RNA that is organized into 3 open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes the nonstructural proteins required for replication, including the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp); ORF2 encodes the major capsid protein (viral protein [VP] 1); and ORF3 encodes the minor capsid protein (VP2) (2). Noroviruses are genetically diverse and are divided into 6 genogroups (GI–GVI) and ≈30 genotypes according to comparison of VP1 sequences. The fact that patients have been sequentially infected with distinct strains suggests a lack of cross-protection among genotypes (35). The current norovirus classification system uses a dual nomenclature based on differences in the RdRp (polymerase or P genotype) and the VP1 region (capsid or G genotype) (6). Because noroviruses are prone to recombine within the ORF1/ORF2 junction, strains with different combinations of P and G genotypes can be detected in nature (7).
Although several norovirus strains circulate, for ≈2 decades, GII.4 has been the predominant genotype infecting humans. It has been proposed that GII.4 strains successfully persist and infect humans by the periodic emergence of new GII.4 variants that escape from herd immunity developed against previous variants (8). Recently, increased detection of GII.17 as the predominant outbreak strain in China has been reported (9). In this study, we characterized the genome of a norovirus GII.17 strain recently detected in Maryland, USA, to determine whether the same GII.17 virus is spreading globally.
Dr. Parra is a research fellow at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH. His research interests include epidemiology, genomics, immunology, and development of vaccine, against gastrointestinal viral infections.
Dr. Green is chief of the Caliciviruses Section of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH. Her research is directed toward the prevention and control of acute gastrointestinal disease caused by noroviruses.


This research was funded by the Division of Intramural Research in the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH.


  1. Patel MMWiddowson MAGlass RIAkazawa KVinje JParashar UDSystematic literature review of role of noroviruses in sporadic gastroenteritis.Emerg Infect Dis2008;14:122431 . DOIPubMed
  2. Green KY. Caliciviridae: The noroviruses. In: Knipe HP, Howley PM, editors. Fields virology. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins;2013. p. 582–608.
  3. Parra GIGreen KYSequential gastroenteritis episodes caused by 2 norovirus genotypes. Emerg Infect Dis2014;20:10168DOIPubMed
  4. Saito MGoel-Apaza SEspetia SVelasquez DCabrera LLoli SMultiple norovirus infections in a birth cohort in a Peruvian periurban community.Clin Infect Dis2014;58:48391DOIPubMed
  5. Sakon NYamazaki KNakata KKanbayashi DYoda TMantani MImpact of genotype-specific herd immunity on the circulatory dynamism of norovirus: a 10-year longitudinal study of viral acute gastroenteritis. J Infect Dis2015;211:87988DOIPubMed
  6. Kroneman AVega EVennema HVinje JWhite PAHansman GProposal for a unified norovirus nomenclature and genotyping. Arch Virol.2013;158:205968DOIPubMed
  7. Bull RAHansman GSClancy LETanaka MMRawlinson WDWhite PANorovirus recombination in ORF1/ORF2 overlap. Emerg Infect Dis.2005;11:107985DOIPubMed
  8. Debbink KLindesmith LCDonaldson EFBaric RSNorovirus immunity and the great escape. PLoS Pathog2012;8:e1002921DOIPubMed
  9. Lu JSun LFang LYang FMo YLao JGastroenteritis outbreaks caused by norovirus GII.17, Guangdong Province, China, 2014–2015. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 [cited 2015 May 1]. . DOI
  10. Kroneman AVennema HDeforche K. v d Avoort H, Penaranda S, Oberste MS, et al. An automated genotyping tool for enteroviruses and noroviruses. J Clin Virol. 2011;51:121–5.
  11. Tamura KStecher GPeterson DFilipski AKumar SMEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol.2013;30:27259DOIPubMed
  12. Zheng DPAndo TFankhauser RLBeard RSGlass RIMonroe SSNorovirus classification and proposed strain nomenclature. Virology.2006;346:31223DOIPubMed


Technical Appendix

Suggested citation for this article: Parra GI, Green KY. Genome of emerging norovirus GII.17, United States, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Aug [date cited].
DOI: 10.3201/eid2108.150652

No hay comentarios:

Publicar un comentario