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Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis in French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2008–2013 - Volume 21, Number 6—June 2015 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

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Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis in French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2008–2013 - Volume 21, Number 6—June 2015 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

Volume 21, Number 6—June 2015


Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis in French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2008–2013



Technical Appendicies

Simon Le HelloComments to Author , Fiona Maillard, Henri-Pierre Mallet, Elise Daudens1, Marc Levy, Valérie Roy, Philippe Branaa, Sophie Bertrand, Laetitia Fabre, and François-Xavier Weill
Author affiliations: Institut Pasteur, Paris, France (S. Le Hello, F. Maillard, L. Fabre, F.-X. Weill)Direction de la Santé de la Polynésie Française, Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia (H.-P. Mallet, E. Daudens)Centre Hospitalier de Polynésie Française, Papeete (M. Levy)Service du Développement Rural, Papeete (V. Roy)Institut Louis Malarde, Papeete (P. Branaa)Scientific Institute of Public Health, Brussels, Belgium (S. Bertrand)


Outbreaks of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections associated with eggs occurred in French Polynesia during 2008–2013. Molecular analysis of isolates by using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat polymorphisms and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis was performed. This subtyping made defining the epidemic strain, finding the source, and decontaminating affected poultry flocks possible.
Over the past 2 decades, the incidence of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis infections in humans has increased dramatically in all industrialized countries, with contaminated eggs the major source of infection (1,2). Despite a substantial decrease in outbreaks caused by this bacterium since the beginning of the 2000s, in particular in Europe due to the introduction of various control measures, Salmonella Enteritidis remains a major foodborne pathogen causing considerable human disease and high economic costs (3,5).
Different phenotypic and genotypic methods have been used to subtype Salmonella Enteritidis, including techniques such as phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results suggest the existence of major worldwide clones of Salmonella Enteritidis, of which most strains belong to phage type (PT) 4, followed by PT8 and PT1 (1,6). Recently, new methods such as standardized multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) (7) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) typing (8,9) have been developed to subtype genetically homogeneous serotypes of Salmonella, in particular Enteritidis.
We report successive outbreaks of Salmonella Enteritidis in French Polynesia, South Pacific. To identify the source and determine the molecular subtypes of Salmonella Enteritidis strains that are circulating, we performed a comprehensive molecular and epidemiologic study on human and nonhuman strains isolated in Tahiti during 2008–2013.

Dr. Le Hello is a medical biologist and co-director of the Centre National de Référence des Escherichia coliShigella, et Salmonella at Institut Pasteur. His research interests are the molecular characterization of Salmonella populations and participating in outbreak investigations.


We are grateful to the microbiological laboratories in France and French Polynesia that participated in the human Salmonella network for isolate processing. We thank Véronique Guibert and Lucile Sontag for their excellent technical assistance and Donald White for his assistance in improving the manuscript.
The Centre National de Référence des Escherichia coliShigella, et Salmonella is co-funded by the Institut de Veille Sanitaire. The Unité des Bactéries Pathogènes Entériques belongs to the Integrative Biology of Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratory of Excellence funded by the French government’s Investissement d’Avenir programme (grant no. ANR-10-LABX-62-IBEID).


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Technical Appendices

Suggested citation for this article: Le Hello S, Maillard F, Mallet H-P, Daudens E, Levy M, Roy V, et al. Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis in French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2008–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Jun [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141103
DOI: 10.3201/eid2106.141103
1Current affiliation: Cellule de l’Institut de Veille Sanitaire en Région Antilles Guyane, Fort de France, Martinique, France.

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