miércoles, 20 de mayo de 2015

Mycobacterium bovis in Panama, 2013 - Volume 21, Number 6—June 2015 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

full-text ►

Mycobacterium bovis in Panama, 2013 - Volume 21, Number 6—June 2015 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

Volume 21, Number 6—June 2015


Mycobacterium bovis in Panama, 2013

Fermín Acosta, Ekatherina Chernyaeva, Libardo Mendoza, Dilcia Sambrano, Ricardo Correa, Mikhail Rotkevich, Miroslava Tarté, Humberto Hernández, Bredio Velazco, Cecilia de Escobar, Jacobus H. de Waard, and Amador GoodridgeComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Instituto de Investigaciones Científicas y Servicios de Alta Tecnología, Ciudad del Saber, Panama (F. Acosta, D. Sambrano, R. Correa, A. Goodridge)Petersburg Institute of Phthisiopulmonology, St. Petersburg, Russia (E. Chernyaeva)St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (E. Chernyaeva, M. Rotkevich)Inversiones para el Desarrollo de Coclé S.A., Anton, Panama (L. Mendoza)Ministerio de Desarrollo Agropecuario, Tocumen, Panama (M. Tarté, H. Hernández, B. Velazco)Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias de Panamá, Ciudad del Saber (C. de Escobar)Instituto de Biomedicina, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela. (J.H. de Waard)


Panama remains free of zoonotic tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, DNA fingerprinting of 7 M. bovis isolates from a 2013 bovine tuberculosis outbreak indicated minimal homology with strains previously circulating in Panama. M. bovis dispersion into Panama highlights the need for enhanced genotype testing to track zoonotic infections.
Zoonotic tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease of humans caused by transmission of Mycobacterium bovis from cattle (1). M. bovis infection in humans occurs after direct contact with infected cattle, ingestion of unpasteurized dairy products or raw or undercooked meat, or (rarely) person-to-person transmission (2). Despite the low incidence of zoonotic tuberculosis in the Americas, accumulating evidence confirms that death rates from M. bovis pulmonary infection in specific groups and settings, including in the United States and Mexico, are substantial (3,4). The risk for death is twice as high for children and persons with HIV co-infection and extrapulmonary TB than for HIV-negative persons with TB (3). M. bovis infection in cattle (bovine TB) has a major effect on meat and live animal export trade and dairy industry development and expansion (1). Thus, bovine TB eradication plans across the Americas are based on the elimination of any cattle with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) result (5).
Thumbnail of Bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Panama, 1999–2013. Data from the World Organisation for Animal Health (http://www.oie.int/animal-health-in-the-world/the-world-animal-health-information-system/the-oie-data-system/).
Figure 1. Bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Panama, 1999–2013. Data from the World Organisation for Animal Health (http://www.oie.int/animal-health-in-the-world/the-world-animal-health-information-system/the-oie-data-system/).
The most recently reported bovine TB outbreak in Panama occurred in 1997 in the western province of Bocas del Toro. The origin of this outbreak remains unclear. Since 2008 (after the slaughter of ≈7,000 cattle during the 1997 outbreak), Panama has not reported any bovine TB cases to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) (Figure 1) (6). However, Panama has not received bovine TB-free accreditation. OIE data show that clinical bovine TB was continually reported from Colombia and Costa Rica during the same period (6).
In August 2013, despite active surveillance at country borders and in-country animal health controls, a new bovine TB outbreak in Panama was reported to OIE (6). Neither the neighboring countries of Colombia and Costa Rica nor Panama have reported zoonotic tuberculosis to OIE in the past 20 years (4,7). Among these countries, only Costa Rica does not test M. tuberculosis complex isolates to identify M. bovis. In contrast, Guatemala continually reports cases of zoonotic TB (6). Yet, the genetic biodiversity of M. bovis in Central America remains unexplored. Comparisons of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses based on whole-genome sequencing have proven to be helpful for identifying TB outbreaks elsewhere (8,9). We characterized and genotyped M. bovis isolates that reemerged in Panama during the 2013 outbreak of bovine TB.
Mr. Acosta is a visiting young scientist at the Tuberculosis Biomarker Research Unit of Instituto de Investigaciones Científicas y Servicios de Alta Tecnología, Ciudad del Saber, Panama. His research focuses on detection identification and genotyping of Mycobacterium spp. and the role of the interferon-gamma release assay in eradicating bovine TB.


We thank Inversiones para el Desarrollo de Coclé S. A. for providing access to the cattle herd for this research and for providing the commercial diagnostic kits. We also thank Alfonso Nuñez, Romel Rosas, and. Leonidas Mendieta for their valuable support during diagnoses and postmortem evaluations. We appreciate the help of Colleen Goodridge in manuscript editing.
This study was partially funded by the Tuberculosis Biomarkers grant IDR10-067 from Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia Tecnología e Innovación, the fellowship program Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia Tecnología e Innovación –Ministerio de Economía y Finanzas–Chile, and the St. Petersburg State University grant no


  1. Cosivi OGrange JMDaborn CJRaviglione MCFujikura TCousins DZoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries.Emerg Infect Dis1998;4:5970DOIPubMed
  2. Evans JTSmith EGBanerjee ASmith RMDale JInnes JACluster of human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis: evidence for person-to-person transmission in the UK. Lancet2007;369:12706DOIPubMed
  3. Müller BDurr SAlonso SHattendorf JLaisse CJParsons SDZoonotic Mycobacterium bovis–induced tuberculosis in humans. Emerg Infect Dis.2013;19:899908DOIPubMed
  4. de Kantor INLoBue PAThoen COHuman tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis2010;14:136973 .PubMed
  5. Garrick DCurrent status of brucellosis, tuberculosis, rabies and cysticercosis in Central America and Panama [in Spanish]Bol Oficina Sanit Panam.1967;63:14250 .PubMed
  6. World Organisation for Animal Health. The World Animal Health Information System [cited 2015 Jan 15]. http://www.oie.int/animal-health-in-the-world/the-world-animal-health-information-system/the-oie-data-system/
  7. de Kantor INAmbroggi MPoggi SMorcillo NDa Silva Telles MAOsorio Ribeiro MHuman Mycobacterium bovis infection in ten Latin American countries. Tuberculosis (Edinb)2008;88:35865DOIPubMed
  8. Walker TMIp CLHarrell RHEvans JTKapatai GDedicoat MJWhole-genome sequencing to delineate Mycobacterium tuberculosis outbreaks: a retrospective observational study. Lancet Infect Dis2013;13:13746DOIPubMed
  9. Roetzer ADiel RKohl TARuckert CNubel UBlom JWhole genome sequencing versus traditional genotyping for investigation of aMycobacterium tuberculosis outbreak: a longitudinal molecular epidemiological study. PLoS Med2013;10:e1001387DOIPubMed
  10. Cedeño Ide Obaldia RSanjur OBayard VOrtega-Barria EEscobar CUse of the polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing bovine tuberculosis in Panama. Rev Sci Tech2005;24:106775 .PubMed
  11. de Beer JLKremer KKodmon CSupply Pvan Soolingen DGlobal Network for the Molecular Surveillance of Tuberculosis 2009. First worldwide proficiency study on variable-number tandem-repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains. J Clin Microbiol2012;50:6629.DOIPubMed
  12. Chernyaeva ENShulgina MVRotkevich MSDobrynin PVSimonov SAShitikov EAGenome-wide Mycobacterium tuberculosis variation (GMTV) database: a new tool for integrating sequence variations and epidemiology. BMC Genomics2014;15:308DOIPubMed
  13. Zumárraga MJMartin CSamper SAlito ALatini OBigi FUsefulness of spoligotyping in molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis–related infections in South America. J Clin Microbiol1999;37:296303 .PubMed
  14. de Kantor INPaolicchi FBernardelli ATorres PMCanal ALobo JRBovine tuberculosis in Latin American countries. Current situation and recommendations Buenos Aires, Argentina. In: Workshop sponsored by OIE, 3rd Latin American Congress on Zoonoses; June 19, 2008; Buenos Aires, Argentina.
  15. Monaghan MLDoherty MLCollins JDKazda JFQuinn PJThe tuberculin test. Vet Microbiol1994;40:11124DOIPubMed



Suggested citation for this article: Acosta F, Chernyaeva E, Mendoza L, Sambrano D, Correa R, Rotkevich M, et al. Mycobacterium bovis in Panama, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Jun [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2106.141821
DOI: 10.3201/eid2106.141821

No hay comentarios:

Publicar un comentario