martes, 21 de octubre de 2014

Foodborne Illness, Australia, Circa 2000 and Circa 2010 - Volume 20, Number 11—November 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC


Foodborne Illness, Australia, Circa 2000 and Circa 2010 - Volume 20, Number 11—November 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

Volume 20, Number 11—November 2014


Foodborne Illness, Australia, Circa 2000 and Circa 2010

Martyn KirkComments to Author , Laura Ford, Kathryn Glass, and Gillian Hall
Author affiliations: Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia


Foodborne disease is a major public health problem worldwide. To examine changes in foodborne illness in Australia, we estimated the incidence, hospitalizations, and deaths attributed to contaminated food circa 2010 and recalculated estimates from circa 2000. Approximately 25% of gastroenteritis cases were caused by contaminated food; to account for uncertainty we used simulation techniques to estimate 90% credible intervals. We estimate that circa 2010, 4.1 million foodborne gastroenteritis cases occurred, and circa 2000, 4.3 million cases occurred. Circa 2010, contaminated food was estimated to be responsible for 30,840 gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations, 76 associated deaths, and 5,140 nongastrointestinal illnesses. Cases of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis increased from 2000 to 2010 and were the leading causes of gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations; Listeria monocytogenes and nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. infections were the leading causes of death. Although the overall incidence of foodborne illnesses declined over time in Australia, cases of foodborne gastroenteritis are still common.
Foodborne illness is a major public health problem and a common cause of illness and death worldwide. Outbreaks linked to contaminated food can affect the public’s trust and financially harm implicated businesses and associated food industries. Estimates of the effects of foodborne illnesses and individual pathogens provide evidence for policy interventions and food safety regulation. In addition, estimates of changes in the incidence of foodborne illnesses and hospitalizations over time provide information on the effectiveness of changes to food safety standards and regulation.
Many agents can cause foodborne illness; some of these agents are transmitted to humans by other routes as well as by food. Most foodborne illnesses manifest as gastroenteritis, but other presentations, such as meningitis and hepatitis may also result from infection, and sequelae may occur weeks after the acute infection.
Many countries have estimated the incidence of foodborne diseases (15). In Australia in 2000, foodborne incidence, hospitalizations, and deaths were estimated to cost 1.25 billion Australian dollars annually (6,7). However, since 2000, surveillance has substantially improved, data availability has increased, and methods have been refined. To inform current public health decisions and policies in Australia, we used new methods and datasets to estimate the incidence of infectious gastroenteritis and associated hospitalizations and deaths in Australia circa 2010. We then applied these refined methods to circa 2000 data so that estimates from the 2 periods could be directly compared.

Dr Kirk is Head of the Master of Philosophy in Applied Epidemiology program—Australia’s Field Epidemiology Training Program—and an associate professor at the National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University. His research interests include foodborne and waterborne diseases, particularly those affecting vulnerable population groups.


We thank John Bates, Kathryn Brown, Duncan Craig, Margaret Curran, Patricia Desmarchelier, Gerard Fitzsimmons, Katie Fullerton, Joy Gregory, David Jordan, Tony Merritt, Jennie Musto, Nevada Pingault, Jane Raupach, Craig Shadbolt, Lisa Szabo, Hassan Vally, Mark Veitch, and Stephanie Williams for assistance with this study. We also thank Martha Sinclair for providing us with additional data from the Melbourne Water Quality Study and the OzFoodNet network, public health laboratories, and health department staff in Australia for the robust collection of data on foodborne diseases.
This project was funded by the Australian Government Department of Health, Food Standards Australia New Zealand and New South Wales Food Authority.


  1. Flint JAVan Duynhoven YTAngulo FJDeLong SMBraun PKirk MEstimating the burden of acute gastroenteritis, foodborne disease, and pathogens commonly transmitted by food: an international review. Clin Infect Dis2005;41:698704DOIPubMed
  2. Scallan EHoekstra RMAngulo FJTauxe RVWiddowson MARoy SLFoodborne illness acquired in the United States—major pathogens. Emerg Infect Dis2011;17:715DOIPubMed
  3. Scallan EGriffin PMAngulo FJTauxe RVHoekstra RMFoodborne illness acquired in the United States—unspecified agents. Emerg Infect Dis.2011;17:1622DOIPubMed
  4. Adak GKLong SMO’Brien SJTrends in indigenous foodborne disease and deaths, England and Wales: 1992 to 2000. Gut2002;51:83241.DOIPubMed
  5. Havelaar AHHavelaar JAMangen MJKemmeren JMVerhoef LPVijgen SMThe disease burden of foodborne pathogens in the Netherlands, 2009. Int J Food Microbiol2012;156:2318DOIPubMed
  6. Abelson PPotter Forbes MHall G. The annual cost of foodborne illness in Australia. Canberra (Australia): Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing; 2006 March. [cited 2014 Aug 13].$File/cost-foodborne.pdf
  7. Hall GKirk MBecker NGregory JUnicomb LMillard GEstimating foodborne gastroenteritis, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis2005;11:125764 .DOIPubMed
  8. Ford LKirk MGlass KHall GSequelae of foodborne illness caused by 5 pathogens, Australia, Circa 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014. Emerg Infect Dis.2014;20:186571.
  9. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 3101.0–Australian demographic statistics, Dec 2011. Table 4. Estimated resident population, states and territories (number) [cited 2014 Aug 16].
  10. Hellard MESinclair MIForbes AFairley CKA randomized, blinded, controlled trial investigating the gastrointestinal health effects of drinking water quality. Environ Health Perspect2001;109:7738DOIPubMed
  11. Sinclair MIHellard MEWolfe RMitakakis TZLeder KFairley CKPathogens causing community gastroenteritis in Australia. J Gastroenterol Hepatol2005;20:168590DOIPubMed
  12. Majowicz SEHall GScallan EAdak GKGauci CJones TFA common, symptom-based case definition for gastroenteritis. Epidemiol Infect.2008;136:88694 . DOIPubMed
  13. Hall GVKirk MDAshbolt RStafford RLalor KOzFoodNet Working Group. Frequency of infectious gastrointestinal illness in Australia, 2002: regional, seasonal and demographic variation. Epidemiol Infect2006;134:1118DOIPubMed
  14. Scallan EMajowicz SEHall GBanerjee ABowman CLDaly LPrevalence of diarrhoea in the community in Australia, Canada, Ireland, and the United States. Int J Epidemiol2005;34:45460DOIPubMed
  15. Hall GMcDonald IMajowicz SEScallan EKirk MSockett PRespiratory symptoms and the case definition of gastroenteritis: an international analysis of the potential impact on burden estimates. Epidemiol Infect2010;138:11724DOIPubMed
  16. Hall GYohannes KRaupach JBecker NKirk MEstimating community incidence of salmonella, campylobacter and Shiga toxin–producingEscherichia coli infections, Australia. Emerg Infect Dis2008;14:16019DOIPubMed
  17. Mead PSSlutsker LDietz VMcCraig LFBresee JSShapiro CFood-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis.1999;5:60725DOIPubMed
  18. Dey AWang HMenzies RMacartney KChanges in hospitalisations for acute gastroenteritis in Australia after the national rotavirus vaccination program. Med J Aust2012;197:4537DOIPubMed
  19. Vally HGlass KFord LHall GKirk MDShadbolt CProportion of illness acquired by foodborne transmission for nine enteric pathogens in Australia: an expert elicitation [cited 2014 Sep 2014]Foodborne Pathog Dis. . Epub 2014 Jul 29.DOIPubMed
  20. Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care. Australian refined diagnosis related groups, version 4.1, definitions manual (vols. 1–3). Canberra (Australia): the Department; 1988.
  21. Hall GVally H. Expert elicitation: what proportion of illness due to nine pathogens is foodborne? Canberra (Australia): Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing and New South Wales Food Authority; August 2009.
  22. Thomas MKMurray RFlockhart LPintar KPollari FFazil AEstimates of the burden of foodborne illness in Canada for 30 specified pathogens and unspecified agents, circa 2006. Foodborne Pathog Dis2013;10:63948DOIPubMed
  23. Hall G. OzFoodNet Working Group. Results from the National Gastroenteritis Survey 2001–2002. Canberra (Australia): National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health; Sept 2004. NCEPH Working Paper, no. 50.
  24. OzFoodNet Working Group. Monitoring the incidence and causes of diseases potentially transmitted by food in Australia: annual report of the OzFoodNet Network, 2010. Commun Dis Q Intell. 2012;36:E213–41.
  25. Australian Government, Department of Health. National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Notifications of a selected disease by state and territory and year [cited 2013 Dec 12].
  26. Ramaswamy VCresence VMRejitha JSLekshmi MUDharsana KSPrasad SPListeria—review of epidemiology and pathogenesis. J Microbiol Immunol Infect2007;40:413 .PubMed
  27. Hall GKirk M. Foodborne illnesses in Australia: annual incidence circa 2000. Canberra (Australia): Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing; 2005. Report no. 0642825769.
  28. Baker MGKvalsvig AZhang JLake RSears AWilson NDeclining Guillain-Barré syndrome after campylobacteriosis control, New Zealand, 1988–2010. Emerg Infect Dis2012;18:22633DOIPubMed
  29. Jones JLKruszon-Moran DSanders-Lewis KWilson MToxoplasma gondii infection in the United States, 1999–2004, decline from the prior decade. Am J Trop Med Hyg2007;77:40510 .PubMed


Technical Appendices

Suggested citation for this article: Kirk M, Ford L, Glass K, Hall G. Foodborne illness, Australia, circa 2000 and circa 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Nov [Date cited].
DOI: 10.3201/eid2011.131315

No hay comentarios:

Publicar un comentario