Prenatal and postnatal residential usage of insecticides in a multicenter birth cohort in Spain
- a Centre for Public Health Research (CSISP), Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia, Spain
- b CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Melchor Fernández Almagro 3-5, 28029 Madrid, Spain
- c Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
- d IMIM (Hospital del Mar Research Institute), Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
- e Departamento de Sanidad Gobierno Vasco, Subdirección de Salud Pública de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastián, Spain
- f Biodonostia, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica, Doctor Begiristain, s/n, 20014 San Sebastián, Spain
- g Faculty of Nursing, University of Valencia, Jaume Roig s/n, 46010, Valencia, Spain
- h Area de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Universidad de Oviedo, Campus El Cristo s/n 33006, Oviedo, Spain
- i Hospital Universitario La Fe, Bulevar Sur s/n, 46026, Valencia, Spain
This study aimed to describe the residential use of insecticides in a birth cohort in Spain. Study subjects were 2 456 women enrolled into the INMA (Environment and Childhood) birth cohort followed prospectively during pregnancy and in the early postnatal period. The women were recruited at the beginning of their pregnancy between 2003 and 2008 in four regions of Spain. Socio-demographic, environmental and lifestyle information was obtained at two interviews during pregnancy, one at the first (mean:13.8 ± 2.6 weeks of gestation) and the other at the third trimester (mean: 33.3 ± 2.3 weeks of gestation). Information about prenatal use of indoor and outdoor insecticides (type, timing, place of application, place of storage) was obtained from the second interview. In a 3rd interview (mean: 16.2 ± 6.9 months of age of children), information about postnatal indoor and outdoor insecticide use was obtained. Regression models examined the association between demographic and lifestyle factors and pesticide use to determine which characteristics predicted use prenatally and postnatally. Fifty-four percent of women reported using indoor insecticides during pregnancy, 45% in their bedroom and 47% elsewhere in the house. Plug-in devices were the most frequent application methods used in the pregnant woman's bedroom and insecticide sprays elsewhere in the house. The maternal factors related to prenatal use of indoor insecticides were parity, country of birth, educational level, region of residence, having a garden or yard with plants, and living near an agricultural area. These products continued to be used postnatally, although 20% of the women stopped using them. Foetuses and children are especially vulnerable to pesticide exposure; thus knowing how pesticides are used during pregnancy and infancy may be a starting point for the study of their potential effects on health as well as useful for designing preventive actions.
► Foetuses and children are especially vulnerable to residential insecticide exposure. ► We described the use of residential insecticides in a birth cohort in Spain. ► 54% of women reported using insecticides at home during pregnancy. ► Maternal associated factors were: parity, country of birth and educational level. ► The habit of using pesticides continued postnatally.