CDC - Preventing Chronic Disease: Volume 9, 2012: 11_0167
An Epidemiologic Transition of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Carriacou and Petite Martinique, Grenada: the Grenada Heart Project, 2005-2007
Robert C. Block MD, MPH; Ann M. Dozier, RN, PhD; Leslie Hazel-Fernandez, PhD; Joseph J. Guido, MS; Thomas A. Pearson, MD, MPH, PhD
Suggested citation for this article: Block RC, Dozier AM, Hazel-Fernandez L, Guido JJ, Pearson TA. An epidemiologic transition of cardiovascular disease risk in Carriacou and Petite Martinique, Grenada: the Grenada Heart Project, 2005-2007. Prev Chronic Dis 2012;9:110167. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd9.110167.
The epidemiologic transition has made chronic disease a major health threat in the Caribbean and throughout the world. Our objective was to examine the pattern of lifestyle factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Grenada and to determine whether the prevalence of CVD risk factors differs by subgroups.
We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult Grenadians between 2005 and 2007. We used a population-wide, community-based approach by adapting the World Health Organization’s STEPwise Approach to the Surveillance of Chronic Disease survey for a local context. We collected behavioral, anthropometric, and blood sample data to assess the prevalence of CVD risk factors.
An estimated 64% (n = 2,017) of 3,167 eligible adults participated in our study (60% women). With increasing age, consumption of fried foods declined, whereas fish intake increased. Adults aged 45 to 54 years had the highest obesity rate (39%). Large waist circumference was more common among women than among men. According to National Cholesterol Education Program criteria, 29% of participants had metabolic syndrome (47% ≥65 y; 36% women vs 17% men). Approximately one-fifth of participants had lived outside Grenada for more than 10 years. Participants who had migrated tended to be older and have different CVD risk factors than those who had never migrated.
In the midst of an epidemiologic transition in the Caribbean nation of Grenada in which CVD risk is increasing, dietary risk factors are most prevalent among women and among all adults younger than 55.