Sapovirus Outbreaks in Long-Term Care Facilities, Oregon and Minnesota, USA, 2002–2009 - Vol. 18 No. 5 - May 2012 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC
Volume 18, Number 5—May 2012
Sapovirus Outbreaks in Long-Term Care Facilities, Oregon and Minnesota, USA, 2002–2009
Suggested citation for this article
Viral gastroenteritis outbreaks are associated with illness and death when they occur in institutional settings, notably in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) for the elderly (1). Although most reported outbreaks in LTCFs are caused by norovirus (2), some have similar epidemiologic characteristics but are norovirus-negative after >2 fecal samples are tested by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Epidemiologically, these norovirus-like gastroenteritis outbreaks are characterized by 24–48-hour incubation periods, if known; vomiting in >50% of affected persons; and 12–60-hour median illness durations (3).
AbstractWe tested fecal samples from 93 norovirus-negative gastroenteritis outbreaks; 21 outbreaks were caused by sapovirus. Of these, 71% were caused by sapovirus genogroup IV and 66% occurred in long-term care facilities. Future investigation of gastroenteritis outbreaks should include multi-organism testing.
Norovirus and sapovirus are separate genera of the family Caliciviridae. Sapovirus was first detected in 1977 as the cause of a gastroenteritis outbreak in a home for infants in Sapporo, Japan (4), and was thereafter reported primarily among young children with acute gastroenteritis (5). After sapovirus RT-PCR was developed (6), sapovirus outbreaks were discovered in LTCFs and other settings populated by adults (7–9). Sapovirus genogroups I, II, IV, and V (GI, GII, GIV, and GV, respectively) infect humans (10). This report describes sapovirus outbreaks in Oregon and Minnesota, USA, during 2002–2009.