Antiviral Res. 2012 Mar;93(3):381-6. Epub 2012 Feb 7.
Analysis of influenza viruses from patients clinically suspected of infection with an oseltamivir resistant virus during the 2009 pandemic in the United States.
Nguyen HT, Trujillo AA, Sheu TG, Levine M, Mishin VP, Shaw M, Ades EW, Klimov AI, Fry AM, Gubareva LV.
SourceInfluenza Division, Atlanta, GA, USA; Atlanta Research and Education Foundation, Atlanta, GA, USA; Battelle Memorial Institute, Atlanta, GA, USA.
AbstractDuring the 2009 influenza pandemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided antiviral susceptibility testing for patients infected with suspected drug-resistant viruses. Specimens from 72 patients admitted to an intensive care unit or with a severe immunocompromising condition, who failed to clinically improve after oseltamivir treatment, were accepted for testing. Respiratory specimens were tested for the presence of the oseltamivir resistance-conferring H275Y substitution in the neuraminidase (NA) by pyrosequencing. Virus isolates propagated in MDCK cells were tested in phenotypic NA inhibition (NI) assays using licensed NA inhibitors (NAIs), zanamivir and oseltamivir, and investigational NAIs, peramivir and laninamivir. Conventional sequencing and plaque purification were conducted on a subset of viruses. Pyrosequencing data were obtained for 87 specimens collected from 58 of the 72 (81%) patients. Of all patients, 27 (38%) had at least one specimen in which H275Y was detected. Analysis of sequential samples from nine patients revealed intra-treatment emergence of H275Y variant and a shift from wildtype-to-H275Y in quasispecies during oseltamivir therapy. A shift in the H275Y proportion was observed as a result of virus propagation in MDCK cells. Overall, the NI method was less sensitive than pyrosequencing in detecting the presence of H275Y variants in virus isolates. Using the NI method, isolates containing H275Y variant at⩾50% exhibited resistance to oseltamivir and peramivir, but retained full susceptibility to zanamivir. H275Y viruses recovered from two patients had an additional substitution I223K or I223R that conferred a 38-52- and 33-97-fold enhancement in oseltamivir- and peramivir-resistance, respectively. These viruses also showed decreased susceptibility to zanamivir and laninamivir. These data suggest that pyrosequencing is a powerful tool for timely detection of NAI resistant viruses and that NI assays are needed for comprehensive testing to detect novel resistance substitutions.
Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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