Characterization of African Swine Fever Virus Caucasus Isolate in European Wild Boars - Vol. 17 No. 12 - December 2011 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC
Volume 17, Number 12—December 2011
Characterization of African Swine Fever Virus Caucasus Isolate in European Wild Boars
AbstractSince 2007, African swine fever has spread from the Caucasus region. To learn more about the dynamics of the disease in wild boars (Sus scrofa), we conducted experiments by using European wild boars. We found high virulence of Caucasus isolates limited potential for establishment of endemicity.
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most serious diseases affecting pigs (1). The causative agent,
African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a complex DNA virus of the genus Asfivirus within the Asfarviridae family. Because of its ability to replicate in Ornithodorus ticks, ASFV can be classified as arthropod-borne virus (2). In domestic pigs, ASFV can cause a wide range of clinical signs, including hemorrhagic syndromes with high lethality. Little is known about ASF in European wild boars, although indications exist that the animals are highly susceptible (3).
In 2007, ASF affecting domestic pigs and wild boars was reported in the Caucasus region. The virus strain involved was related to isolates of genotype II, which are circulating in Mozambique, Madagascar, and Zambia (4). Especially in Russia, ASF recurs and shows a clear tendency to move northward (5). This unresolved situation increases the risk of introducing the virus into virus-free areas, and the involvement of wild boar, raises special concerns. As seen with classical swine fever, the growing population of wild boars is problematic for animal disease control, particularly if the infection reaches endemicity (6). Therefore, knowledge about disease dynamics is vital for risk assessment and strategy design, particularly because no vaccine against ASF is available.
Therefore, animal experiments were carried out at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (Greifswald–Insel Riems, Germany), and the National Research Institute for Veterinary Virology and Microbiology (NRIVVaMR, Pokrov, Russia). The aim was to define clinical signs, disease dynamics, and postmortem lesions in wild boars after intramuscular and oral infection with ASFV Caucasus isolates.
Suggested citation for this article: Gabriel C, Blome S, Malogolovkin A, Parilov S, Kolbasov D, Teifke JP, et al. Characterization of African swine fever virus Caucasus isolate in European wild boars. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2011 Dec [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1712.110430