J Infect Dis. 2014 Nov 1;210 Suppl 1:S315-23. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu183.
Detection of vaccine-derived polioviruses in Mexico using environmental surveillance.
Esteves-Jaramillo A1, Estívariz CF2, Peñaranda S3, Richardson VL1, Reyna J1, Coronel DL1, Carrión V4, Landaverde JM4, Wassilak SG2, Pérez-Sánchez EE5,López-Martínez I5, Burns CC3, Pallansch MA3.
Early detection and control of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) emergences are essential to secure the gains of polio eradication.
Serial sewage samples were collected in 4 towns of Mexico before, throughout, and after the May 2010 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) mass immunization campaign. Isolation and molecular analysis of polioviruses from sewage specimens monitored the duration of vaccine-related strains in the environment and emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses in a population partially immunized with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV).
Sabin strains were identified up to 5-8 weeks after the campaign in all towns; in Aguascalientes, 1 Sabin 3 was isolated 16 weeks after the campaign, following 7 weeks with no Sabin strains detected. In Tuxtla Gutiérrez, type 2 VDPV was isolated from 4 samples collected before and during the campaign, and type 1 VDPV from 1 sample collected 19 weeks afterward. During 2009-2010, coverage in 4 OPV campaigns conducted averaged only 57% and surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) was suboptimal (AFP rate <1 per 100 000 population <15 years of age) in Tuxtla Gutierrez.
VDPVs may emerge and spread in settings with inadequate coverage with IPV/OPV vaccination. Environmental surveillance can facilitate early detection in these settings.
Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
environmental surveillance; inactivated poliovirus vaccine; polio; vaccine-derived poliovirus
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