jueves, 25 de septiembre de 2014

Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes Ticks in Europe and the United States - Volume 20, Number 10—October 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

full-text ►

Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes Ticks in Europe and the United States - Volume 20, Number 10—October 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC


Volume 20, Number 10—October 2014


Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes Ticks in Europe and the United States

Chris D. Crowder, Heather E. Carolan, Megan A. Rounds, Vaclav Honig, Benedikt Mothes, Heike Haag, Oliver Nolte, Ben J. Luft, Libor Grubhoffer, David J. Ecker, Steven E. Schutzer, and Mark W. EshooComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Ibis Biosciences, Carlsbad, California, USA (C.D. Crowder, H.E. Carolan, M.A. Rounds, D.J. Ecker, M.W. Eshoo)Biology Centre ASCR, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic (V. Honig, L. Grubhoffer);Laboratory of Dr. Brunner, Constance, Germany (B. Mothes, H. Haag, O. Nolte)University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany (B. Mothes); Zentrum für Labormedizin, St. Gallen, Switzerland (O. Nolte)State University of New York at Stony Brook School of Medicine, Stony Brook, New York, USA (B.J. Luft)Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA (S.E. Schutzer)


Borrelia miyamotoi, a relapsing fever-related spirochete transmitted by Ixodes ticks, has been recently shown to be a human pathogen. To characterize the prevalence of this organism in questing Ixodes ticks, we tested 2,754 ticks for a variety of tickborne pathogens by PCR and electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Ticks were collected from California, New York, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and Indiana in the United States and from Germany and the Czech Republic in Europe from 2008 through 2012. In addition, an isolate from Japan was characterized. We found 3 distinct genotypes, 1 for North America, 1 for Europe, and 1 for Japan. We found B. miyamotoi infection in ticks in 16 of the 26 sites surveyed, with infection prevalence as high as 15.4%. These results show the widespread distribution of the pathogen, indicating an exposure risk to humans in areas where Ixodes ticks reside.
Ixodes ticks can transmit a variety of pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and protozoa (1). Borrelia spirochetes are one of the genera of bacteria transmitted by Ixodes ticks. Most Borrelia that infect ticks belong to the Borrelia burgdorferi senso lato group and include B. burgdorferi senso stricto, B. garinii, and B. afzelii, all of which cause Lyme disease in humans (1). Borrelia miyamotoi has been found in a variety of Ixodes ticks and is more closely related to the relapsing fever spirochetes that infect soft ticks than to the bacteria that cause Lyme disease (2).
B. miyamotoi found in Europe and the United States also cause disease in humans (35). A study in Russia has shown that the spirochete B. miyamotoi has the ability to infect humans; infections with B. miyamotoi cause symptoms similar to those seen with relapsing fever, as well as erythema migrans-like skin lesions on rare occasions (6). B. miyamotoi has been found in ticks of the following species: Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus in the United States, I. persulcatus in Japan, and I. ricinus and I. persulcatus in Europe and Asia (2,711). In North America, B. miyamotoi has been found as far north as the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Nova Scotia (12). In the United States, the geographic range of B. miyamotoi is from the Northeast to California and has been reported as far south as Tennessee (7,8,1315). Previous studies have shown that B. miyamotoi can be placed into different genetic groups based upon its geographic location and has some variation within the genographic groups (6,9).
To examine the prevalence distribution and diversity of B. miyamotoi in Ixodes ticks, we screened individual ticks by PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) to detect tickborne pathogens, including B. miyamotoi (16). This approach has been used to characterize tickborne microorganisms, including Ehrlichia and Borrelia, from clinical specimens, heartworms in canine blood, and naturally occurring tick endosymbionts (1619). Ticks that tested positive for B. miyamotoi were further characterized by using a Borrelia genotyping assay to assess genetic diversity (20).

Dr Crowder is a researcher at Ibis Biosciences working on vectorborne disease diagnostics. His research interests include tick-transmitted diseases in both the vector and in clinical patients.


We thank our many collaborators who collected ticks for this study. We also thank Wakoli Wekesa, Robert Cummings, Paul Binding, David James, Ronald Keith, Angella Falco, Ann Donohue, Jamesina Scott, Stacy Berden, and Jack Cavier for collection of the California Ixodes ticks; Jianmin Zhong for ticks from Humbolt County; Scott Campbell and Keith Clay for ticks from New York and Indiana, respectively; John Bruno and Dan Qui for ticks from New York and Connecticut; and Kirby Stafford for ticks from Connecticut.
This study was supported by National Institutes of Health grant no. 2R44AI077156.
M.W.E., C.D.C., H.E.M., M.A.R., D.J.E. are employees of Ibis Biosciences Inc., an Abbott Company that developed the PCR/ESI-MS assays and instrumentation used in these studies. Assays described are for research use only. H.H., B.M., and O.N. are employees of the laboratory of Dr Brunner, which was contracted to test ticks.


  1. de la Fuente JEstrada-Pena AVenzal JMKocan KMSonenshine DEOverview: Ticks as vectors of pathogens that cause disease in humans and animals. Front Biosci2008;13:693846DOIPubMed
  2. Fukunaga MTakahashi YTsuruta YMatsushita ORalph DMcClelland MGenetic and phenotypic analysis of Borrelia miyamotoi sp. nov., isolated from the ixodid tick Ixodes persulcatus, the vector for Lyme disease in Japan. Int J Syst Bacteriol1995;45:80410DOIPubMed
  3. Hovius JWde Wever BSohne MBrouwer MCCoumou JWagemakers AA case of meningoencephalitis by the relapsing fever spirochaeteBorrelia miyamotoi in Europe. Lancet2013;382:658DOIPubMed
  4. Chowdri HRGugliotta JLBerardi VPGoethert HKMolloy PJSterling SLBorrelia miyamotoi infection presenting as human granulocytic anaplasmosis: a case report. Ann Intern Med2013;159:217DOIPubMed
  5. Krause PJNarasimhan SWormser GPRollend LFikrig ELepore THuman Borrelia miyamotoi infection in the United States. N Engl J Med.2013;368:2913DOIPubMed
  6. Platonov AEKaran LSKolyasnikova NMMakhneva NAToporkova MGMaleev VVHumans infected with relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis2011;17:181623DOIPubMed
  7. Scoles GAPapero MBeati LFish DA relapsing fever group spirochete transmitted by Ixodes scapularis ticks. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.2001;1:2134DOIPubMed
  8. Mun JEisen RJEisen LLane RSDetection of a Borrelia miyamotoi sensu lato relapsing-fever group spirochete from Ixodes pacificus in California. J Med Entomol2006;43:1203DOIPubMed
  9. Geller JNazarova LKatargina OJarvekulg LFomenko NGolovljova IDetection and genetic characterization of relapsing fever spirocheteBorrelia miyamotoi in Estonian ticks. PLoS ONE2012;7:e51914DOIPubMed
  10. Hulínská DVotýpka JKríz BHolinková NNováková JHulínský VPhenotypic and genotypic analysis of Borrelia spp. isolated from Ixodes ricinusticks by using electrophoretic chips and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Folia Microbiol (Praha)2007;52:31524DOIPubMed
  11. Richter DSchlee DBMatuschka FRRelapsing fever-like spirochetes infecting European vector tick of Lyme disease agent. Emerg Infect Dis.2003;9:697701DOIPubMed
  12. Ogden NHMargos GAanensen DMDrebot MAFeil EJHanincova KInvestigation of genotypes of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis ticks collected during surveillance in Canada. Appl Environ Microbiol2011;77:324454DOIPubMed
  13. Barbour AGBunikis JTravinsky BHoen AGDiuk-Wasser MAFish DNiche partitioning of Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi in the same tick vector and mammalian reservoir species. Am J Trop Med Hyg2009;81:112031DOIPubMed
  14. Rosen MEHamer SAGerhardt RRJones CJMuller LIScott MCBorrelia burgdorferi not detected in widespread Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from white-tailed deer in Tennessee. J Med Entomol2012;49:147380DOIPubMed
  15. Scott MCRosen MEHamer SABaker EEdwards HCrowder CHigh-prevalence Borrelia miyamotoi infection among wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in Tennessee. J Med Entomol2010;47:123842DOIPubMed
  16. Eshoo MWCrowder CDLi HMatthews HEMeng SSefers SEDetection and identification of Ehrlichia species in blood by use of PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J Clin Microbiol2010;48:4728DOIPubMed
  17. Crowder CDMatthews HERounds MALi FSchutzer SESampath RDetection of heartworm infection in dogs via PCR amplification and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of nucleic acid extracts from whole blood samples. Am J Vet Res2012;73:8549DOIPubMed
  18. Eshoo MWCrowder CCRebman AWRounds MAMatthews HEPicuri JMDirect molecular detection and genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferifrom whole blood of patients with early Lyme disease. PLoS ONE2012;7:e36825DOIPubMed
  19. Rounds MACrowder CDMatthews HEPhilipson CAScoles GAEcker DJIdentification of endosymbionts in ticks by broad-range polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J Med Entomol2012;49:84350DOIPubMed
  20. Crowder CDMatthews HESchutzer SRounds MALuft BJNolte OGenotypic variation and mixtures of Lyme Borrelia in Ixodes ticks from North America and Europe. PLoS ONE2010;5:e10650DOIPubMed
  21. Crowder CDRounds MAPhillipson CAPicuri JMMatthews HEHalverson JExtraction of total nucleic acids from ticks for the detection of bacterial and viral pathogens. J Med Entomol2010;47:8994DOIPubMed
  22. Gugliotta JLGoethert HKBerardi VPTelford SR IIIMeningoencephalitis from Borrelia miyamotoi in an immunocompromised patient. N Engl J Med2013;368:2405DOIPubMed


Suggested citation for this article: Crowder CD, Carolan HE, Rounds MA, Honig V, Mothes B, Haag H, et al. Prevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodesticks in Europe and the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Oct [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2010.131583
DOI: 10.3201/eid2010.131583

No hay comentarios:

Publicar un comentario