Zaïre ebolavirus (ZEBOV) infection rapidly outruns the host's immunity and leads to death within a week. Fatal cases have been associated with an aberrant innate, proinflammatory immune response followed by a suppressed adaptive response leading to the rapid depletion of peripheral NK cells and lymphocytes. A critical role for NK cells has been suggested but not elucidated. In this genetic study, we investigated the association of KIR genotype with disease outcome by comparing genotypes of a Gabonese control population, IgG+ contacts, survivors, and fatalities of ZEBOV infection. We showed that the activating KIR2DS1 and KIR2DS3 genes associate with fatal outcome in Ebola virus infection. In addition, this study brings supplemental evidence in favor of the specificity of the IgG+ contact population. The outcome of fulminating Ebola virus infection could depend in part on the host's inherited KIR gene repertoire. This supports a key role for KIRs in disease susceptibility to infections.