Kidney International 85, 103-111 (January 2014) | doi:10.1038/ki.2013.328
Identification of a urine metabolomic signature in patients with advanced-stage chronic kidney disease
Maria Posada-Ayala, Irene Zubiri, Marta Martin-Lorenzo, Aroa Sanz-Maroto, Dolores Molero, Laura Gonzalez-Calero, Beatriz Fernandez-Fernandez, Fernando de la Cuesta, Carlos M Laborde, Maria G Barderas, Alberto Ortiz, Fernando Vivanco and Gloria Alvarez-Llamas
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing and frequently progresses to end-stage renal disease. There is an urgent demand to discover novel markers of disease that allow monitoring disease progression and, eventually, response to treatment. To identify such markers, and as a proof of principle, we determined if a metabolite signature corresponding to CKD can be found in urine. In the discovery stage, we analyzed the urine metabolome by NMR of 15 patients with CKD and compared that with the metabolome of 15 healthy individuals and found a classification pattern clearly indicative of CKD. A validation cohort of urine samples from an additional 16 patients with CKD and 15 controls was then analyzed by (Selected Reaction Monitoring) liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and indicated that a group of seven urinary metabolites differed between CKD and non-CKD urine samples. This profile consisted of 5-oxoproline, glutamate, guanidoacetate, α-phenylacetylglutamine, taurine, citrate, and trimethylamine N-oxide. Thus, we identified a panel of urine metabolites differentially present in urine that may help identify and monitor patients with CKD.