- ©American Society of Clinical Oncology
Associations Between Cigarette Smoking Status and Colon Cancer Prognosis Among Participants in North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase III Trial N0147
- Amanda I. Phipps⇑,
- Qian Shi,
- Polly A. Newcomb,
- Garth D. Nelson,
- Daniel J. Sargent,
- Steven R. Alberts and
- Paul J. Limburg
+ Author Affiliations
- Amanda I. Phipps, Polly A. Newcomb, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; and Qian Shi, Garth D. Nelson, Daniel J. Sargent, Steven R. Alberts, and Paul J. Limburg, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
- Corresponding author: Amanda Phipps, PhD, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, M4-B402, Seattle, WA 98109; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Purpose By using data from North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase III Trial N0147, a randomized adjuvant trial of patients with stage III colon cancer, we assessed the relationship between smoking and cancer outcomes, disease-free survival (DFS), and time to recurrence (TTR), accounting for heterogeneity by patient and tumor characteristics.
Patients and Methods Before random assignment to infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or FOLFOX plus cetuximab, 1,968 participants completed a questionnaire on smoking history and other risk factors. Cox models assessed the association between smoking history and the primary trial outcome of DFS (ie, time to recurrence or death), as well as TTR, adjusting for other clinical and patient factors. The median follow-up was 3.5 years among patients who did not experience events.
Results Compared with never-smokers, ever smokers experienced significantly shorter DFS (3-year DFS proportion: 70% v 74%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.42). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.49). There was significant interaction in this association by BRAF mutation status (P = .03): smoking was associated with shorter DFS in patients with BRAF wild-type (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.66) but not BRAF mutated (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.29) colon cancer. Smoking was more strongly associated with poorer DFS in those with KRAS mutated versus KRAS wild-type colon cancer (HR, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.12 to 2.00] v HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.39]), although interaction by KRAS mutation status was not statistically significant (P = .07). Associations were comparable in analyses of TTR.
Conclusion Overall, smoking was significantly associated with shorter DFS and TTR in patients with colon cancer. These adverse relationships were most evident in patients with BRAF wild-type or KRAS mutated colon cancer.
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