Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2014 Jul 12. [Epub ahead of print]
Nocardia vulneris sp. nov., isolated from wounds of human patients in North America.
Nocardia species are ubiquitous in the environment with an increasing number of species isolated from clinical sources. From 2005 to 2009, eight isolates (W9042, W9247, W9290, W9319, W9846, W9851T, W9865, and W9908) were obtained from eight patients from three states in the United States and Canada; all were from males ranging in age from 47 to 81 years old; and all were obtained from finger (n = 5) or leg (n = 3) wounds. Isolates were characterized by polyphasic analysis using molecular, phenotypic, morphologic and chemotaxonomic methods. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the eight isolates are 100 % identical to each other and belong in the genus Nocardia. The nearest phylogenetically related neighbours were found to be the type strains for Nocardia altamirensis (99.33 % sequence similarity), Nocardia brasiliensis (99.37 %), Nocardia iowensis (98.95 %) and Nocardia tenerifensis (98.44 %). The G+C content of isolate W9851T was determined to be 68.4 mol %. The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain W9851T and the N. brasiliensis type strain was 72.8 % and 65.8 % when measured in the laboratory and in silico from genome sequences, respectively, and 95.6 % ANI. Whole-cell peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid; MK-8-(H4)ω-cyc was identified as the major menaquinone; the major fatty acids were identified as C16:0, 10 Me C18:0, and C18:1 w9c, the predominant phospholipids were found to include diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides; whole-cell sugars detected were arabinose and galactose; and mycolic acids ranging from 38 to 60 carbon atoms were found to be present. These chemotaxonomic analyses are consistent with assignment of the isolates to the genus Nocardia. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectra of the clinical isolates showed genus and species level profiles that were different from other Nocardia species. All isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin and imipenem but were susceptible to amikacin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, linezolid and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The results of our polyphasic analysis suggest the new isolates obtained from wound infections represent a novel species within the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia vulneris sp. nov. is proposed, with strain W9851T (= DSM 45737T = CCUG 62683T = NBRC 108936T) as the type strain.
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