Nutrigenomics and Personalized Diets: What Will They Mean for Food?
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Vol. 2: 97-123 (Volume publication date April 2011)
First published online as a Review in Advance on October 16, 2010
J. Bruce German,1,2,3 Angela M. Zivkovic,1,2 David C. Dallas,2 and Jennifer T. Smilowitz1,2
1Foods for Health Institute, University of California, Davis, California 95616; email: firstname.lastname@example.org
2Department of Food Science & Technology, University of California, Davis, California 95616
3Nestle Research Center, Lausanne 1000 Switzerland
The modern food system feeds six billion people with remarkable diversity, safety, and nutrition. Yet, the current rise in diet-related diseases is compromising health and devaluing many aspects of modern agriculture. Steps to increase the nutritional quality of individual foods will assist in personalizing health and in guiding individuals to achieve superior health. Nutrigenomics is the scientific field of the genetic basis for varying susceptibilities to disease and the diverse responses to foods. Although some of these genetic determinants will be simple and amenable to personal genotyping as the means to predict health, in practice most will not. As a result, genotyping will not be the secret to personalizing diet and health. Human assessment technologies from imaging to proteomics and metabolomics are providing tools to both understand and accurately assess the nutritional phenotype of individuals. The business models are also emerging to bring these assessment capabilities to industrial practice, in which consumers will know more about their personal health and seek personal solutions.