National Guideline Clearinghouse | Colposcopic management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.
April 15, 2013
Colposcopic management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.
|Bentley J. Colposcopic management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology. J Obstet Gynaecol Can2012 Dec;34(12):1188-202. [95 references] PubMed|
This is the current release of the guideline.
Colposcopic management of abnormal cer... [J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI
J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2012 Dec;34(12):1188-202.
Colposcopic management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.
Objective: To provide a guideline for managing abnormal cytology results after screening for cervical cancer, to clarify the appropriate algorithms for follow-up after treatment, and to promote the best possible care for women while ensuring efficient use of available resources. Outcomes: Women with abnormal cytology are at risk of developing cervical cancer; appropriate triage and treatment will reduce this risk. This guideline will facilitate implementation of common standards across Canada, moving away from the current trend of individual guidelines in each province and territory. Evidence: Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in October 2008 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., colposcopy, cervical dysplasia) and key words (e.g., colposcopy management, CIN, AGC, cervical dysplasia, LEEP, LLETZ, HPV testing, cervical dysplasia triage). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to July 2012. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, and national and international medical specialty societies. Expert opinion from published peer-reviewed literature and evidence from clinical trials is summarized. Consensus opinion is outlined when evidence is insufficient. Values: The quality of the evidence is rated using the criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Validation: This guideline has been reviewed for accuracy from content experts in cytology, pathology, and cervical screening programs. Guideline content was also compared with similar documents from other organizations including the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, the British Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the European Cancer Network. Recommendations Managing Cytological Abnormalities The age of the patient may affect management and where pertinent will be identified in the recommendation. The Colposcopy Examination 1. Colposcopic findings are best described according to the terminology defined by the International Federation for Cervical Pathology and Colposcopy. (III-C) 2. At colposcopy, 2 or more biopsy specimens should be taken. (I-A) 3. An endocervical curettage should be performed when the transformation zone is not visible in women with an AGC Pap smear and in women over 45 years old with high-grade cytology. (II-2B) 4. Routine HR-HPV testing for all colposcopy referrals is discouraged. (III-C) Managing Women With ASCUS or LSIL on Referral for Colposcopy 5. A woman with persistent ASCUS/LSIL or ASCUS HR-HPV positive cytology should be referred for colposcopy as directed by provincial/territorial guidelines. (III-A) 6. A colposcopically identified lesion should be biopsied. (III-C) 7. If no lesion is identified, biopsies of the transformation zone should be considered. (III-C) Managing ASC-H 8. A woman with an ASC-H Pap smear should have colposcopy to rule out CIN 2 or 3 and/or cancer. (II-2A) 9. Biopsies should be performed on any identifiable lesions at colposcopy. (II-2A) 10. With an ASC- H Pap smear, the finding of negative colposcopy does not automatically warrant a diagnostic excisional procedure. (III-E) Managing HSIL 11. All women with an HSIL test result should have colposcopy. (II-2A) 12. In the absence of an identifiable lesion at colposcopy, whether satisfactory or unsatisfactory, an endocervical curettage and directed biopsies should be performed. (III-B) 13. In women with HSIL, when the transformation zone is not seen in its entirety and endocervical curettage and/or biopsy results are negative, a diagnostic excisional procedure should be considered. (III-B) Managing Atypical Glandular Cytology (AGC-NOS, AGC-N, AIS) 14. The finding of an AGC Pap smear warrants colposcopy. (II-2A) 15. All women with an AGC Pap smear should have an endocervical curettage. Women over 35 years of age or with a history of abnormal bleeding should have endometrial sampling. (II-2A) 16. Women with an AGC-N Pap smear without an identifiable lesion at colposcopy should undergo a diagnostic excisional procedure. (II-2A) Managing Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma on Cytology 17. Women with a cytologic diagnosis suggestive of carcinoma, with or without a visible lesion, should have colposcopy and appropriate biopsies. (III-A) Managing the Patient With Abnormal HPV Test and Normal Cytology 18. Women less than 30 years old should not have HR-HPV testing done as a screen with cytology. (II-2E) 19. Women less than 30 years old who are HR-HPV positive and have normal cytology should be followed as per provincial/territorial guidelines; colposcopy is not required. (III-B) 20. Women 30 years old and over who test positive for HR-HPV and have negative cytology should have HR-HPV and cytology testing repeated at 12 months. Persistent positive HR-HPV tests warrant colposcopy. (I-A) Managing Abnormal Cytology in Pregnancy 21. Women with an ASC-US or LSIL test result during pregnancy should have repeat cytology testing at 3 months post pregnancy. (III-B) 22. Pregnant women with HSIL, ASC-H, or AGC should be referred for colposcopy within 4 weeks. (III-B) 23. Endocervical curettage should not be performed during pregnancy. (III-D) Managing Abnormal Cytology in Women Less Than 21 Years Old 24. Cytological screening should not be initiated in women less than 21 years old. (II-2E) 25. If screening is done in a woman less than 21 years old, and an ASC-US or LSIL result is reported, cytology should be repeated only per provincial or territorial guidelines. (III-B) 26. A woman less than 21 years old who has cytology results of ASC-H, HSIL, and AGC should be referred for colposcopy. (III-B) Managing Histological Abnormalities Managing CIN 1 27. The preferred option for biopsy-proven CIN 1 is observation with repeat assessment at 12 months with cytology testing. (Colposcopy at 12 months is an acceptable option.) Management should be according to the cytology result. (II-1B) 28. In the case of a patient with biopsy-proven CIN 1 after HSIL or AGC, cytology and histology should be reviewed, where available. If a discrepancy remains, then an excisional biopsy may be considered. (III-B) Managing CIN 2 or 3 in Women Aged 25 Years and Over 29. CIN 2 or 3 should be treated. Excisional procedures are preferred for CIN 3. (II-1A) 30. Women who have positive margins should have follow-up with colposcopy and directed biopsies and/or endocervical curettage. Treatment for recurrent or persistent CIN 2 or 3 should be by excision. (II-1B) Managing CIN 2 or 3 in Women Less Than 25 Years Old 31. The pathologist should be asked to clarify whether the lesion is CIN 2 or CIN 3. (III-B) 32. CIN 2 in women less than 25 years old should be observed with colposcopy at 6-month intervals for up to 24 months before treatment is considered. (II-2B) 33. CIN 3 in women less than 25 years old should be treated. (III-B) Managing Adenocarcinoma in Situ 34. If AIS is diagnosed, treatment needs to be a diagnostic excisional procedure, or type 3 transformation zone excision. (II-2A) 35. If margins are positive after diagnostic excisional procedure, a second excisional procedure should be performed. (II-2A) 36. If after treatment for AIS a woman has finished childbearing, a hysterectomy should be considered. (III-B) 37. If AIS is diagnosed after LEEP is performed for CIN in a woman who has not completed her family and margins are negative, it is unnecessary to perform a further diagnostic excisional procedure. (II-2E) Managing Histological Abnormalities During Pregnancy 38. If CIN 2 or CIN 3 is suspected or diagnosed during pregnancy, repeat colposcopy and treatment should be delayed until 8 to 12 weeks after delivery. (II-2A) Follow-up Post Treatment for CIN 2 or 3 Either option is acceptable: 39. Women should be followed with cytology testing and colposcopy at 6-month intervals for 2 visits. If both cytology and any biopsies are negative, they will then return to screening per provincial/territorial guidelines. (II-2B) 40. HPV testing at 6 months combined with cytology testing is acceptable. If both are negative, women may return to screening per provincial/territorial guidelines. (II-2B) Managing Histological Abnormalities in Women at High Risk 41. Immunocompromised women do not require screening colposcopy. (II-2D) Wait Times for Colposcopy 42. Women with ASC-H or AGC should be seen in a colposcopy clinic within 6 weeks of referral. (III-C) 43. Women with HSIL should ideally be seen in a colposcopy clinic within 4 weeks of referral. (III-C) 44. Women with a Pap smear suggestive of carcinoma should be seen in a colposcopy clinic within 2 weeks of referral. (III-C) 45. All other women with abnormal results should be seen in a colposcopy clinic within 12 weeks of referral. (III-C).
- [PubMed - in process]