Learn more about the fundamentals of vision health and vision loss.
Fast Facts – a list of many facts regarding vision health and vision loss
Common Eye Disorders – a high level summary of common disorders related to vision loss
Eye Health Tips – simple tips for healthy eyes
Burden of Vision Loss – provides present and predicted future estimates of vision impairment and loss among U.S. adults
Comorbid Conditions – displays chronic conditions associated with vision loss
Health Across Lifespan – some vision health information regarding three different stages of life
Vision Loss: A Public Health Problem – answers questions about the public health burden of vision loss
Preserving Vision in Patients with Diabetes
May is Healthy Vision Month
Healthy Vision Month and the CDC's Vision Health Initiative (VHI) is partnering with the National Eye Institute to encourage all Americans to make vision a health priority. Vision impairment becomes more common as people age. Women, minority groups, and people with chronic diseases like diabetes may be at higher risk for having vision impairment. The number of Americans 40 years and older with diabetic retinopathy and vision threatening retinopathy will triple in 2050; from 5.5 million to 16 million and from 1.2 million to 3.4 million respectively. While some eye conditions, like cataract, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration, can cause vision loss and even blindness, others, such as refractive errors, are common problems that can be easily corrected with glasses or contact lenses.
It's important to take care of your eyes. Poor vision makes it harder to read, drive, and cook. The good news—many eye problems and diseases can be treated if caught early. To make sure you keep seeing clearly, get a comprehensive dilated eye exam. An eye care professional will examine your eyes for signs of vision problems or eye diseases. It's the best way to find out if you need glasses or contacts, or are in the early stages of a serious but treatable eye disease.
You should have a dilated eye exam regularly to check for common eye problems. If you haven't had an exam for some time, schedule one this month, during Healthy Vision Month. CDC's Vision Health Initiative and the National Eye Institute are encouraging Americans to take care of their eyes to make sure they can see well throughout their lives.
What to Expect From a Dilated Eye Exam
- Your eye care professional will place drops in your eyes to dilate, or widen, the pupil to allow more light to enter the eye—the same way an open door lets more light into a dark room.
- This process offers a good look at the back of the eyes, so they can be examined for any signs of damage or disease.
- Your close-up vision may remain blurry for a few hours after the exam.
The best option is to keep your eyes as healthy as possible throughout your lifetime.
- Get a dilated eye exam.
- Know your family's eye health history.
- Eat right to protect your sight—in particular, eat plenty of dark leafy greens such as spinach, kale, or collard greens, and fish that is high in omega-3 fatty acids.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Wear protective eyewear when playing sports or doing activities around the home.
- Quit smoking. Or never start.
- Wear sunglasses that block 99%–100% of ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation.
- Clean your hands and your contact lenses properly to avoid the risk of infection.
- Practice workplace eye safety.
Although most Americans who have vision problems are aged 65 years or older, even preschoolers may not see as well as they should. Young children may be nearsighted, which means distant objects look blurred. Eyeglasses or contact lenses can correct nearsightedness and help people see better.
Another cause of vision problems in young children is amblyopia, which affects 2%–4% of preschoolers. Amblyopia, also called lazy eye, is poor vision in one eye that is otherwise physically normal. Treatment for amblyopia includes finding the condition early, and using a patch or eye drops to give the stronger eye a rest and to strengthen the weaker eye.
Just 1 out of every 7 preschoolers receives an eye exam, and fewer than 1 out of every 4 receives some type of vision screening. Because finding amblyopia early is important for treating it effectively, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends vision screening for amblyopia and its risk factors for all children aged 3 to 5 years.
For older Americans, vision loss usually comes from diseases tied to aging, including macular degeneration, cataract, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. A dilated eye exam is the only way to find these diseases in the early stages, and it will also find vision problems that can be corrected, such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia, in which eyes gradually lose the ability to focus on close objects, such as the text in a newspaper. An estimated 11 million Americans aged 12 years and older could see better through measures including reading glasses, contact lenses, or eye surgery.
Taking care of your eyes also may benefit your overall health. People with vision problems are more likely than those with good vision to have diabetes, poor hearing, heart problems, high blood pressure, lower back pain and stroke, as well as have increased risk for falls, injury and depression. Among people aged 65 years and older, 54.2% of those who are blind and 41.7% of those with impaired vision say their overall health is fair or poor. Just 21.5% of older Americans without vision problems reported fair to poor health.
- Decreased vision.
- Eye pain.
- Drainage or redness of the eye.
- Double vision.
- Flashes of light.
- Floaters (tiny specks that appear to float before your eyes).
- Circles, or halos, around light sources.
It's important for both your vision and overall health to control blood sugar (glucose) levels and to maintain your blood pressure and cholesterol at recommended levels.
CDC's Vision Health Initiative team works with partners to implement a public health framework that promotes vision health and quality of life for all populations, through all life stages, by preventing and controlling eye diseases, eye injury, and vision loss resulting in disability. The initiative is located in CDC's Division of Diabetes Translation.
Current Funded Projects
CDC's Vision Health Initiative (VHI) conducts or supports research and non-research activities to strengthen the public health science base for vision loss prevention and eye health promotion.
National and State Based Surveillance
VHI seeks to build the capacity and resources necessary to implement public health surveillance activities addressing vision loss prevention and eye health promotion.
- Economic Studies
Past Funded Projects
Expert Panel Meeting
Data & Statistics
Vision/Eye Health Data & Statistics
The Data and Statistic section provides resources documenting the public health burden of vision loss and eye diseases as well as access and utilization of eye care services in the United States.
A summary of the national data assessing vision loss, eye diseases, and access to eye care.
Assess and monitor the burden of vision loss, eye diseases and access and utilization of eye care services. This site provides the specific data, trend, and maps at the state level.
Major national and state health surveys such as National Health and Nutrition Examination surveys (NHANES), National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS) are used to provide information related to vision loss and eye health.
Diabetes Data and Trends, which includes the National Diabetes Fact Sheet and the National Diabetes Surveillance System, provides resources documenting the public health burden of diabetes and its complications in the United States. The surveillance system also includes county-level estimates of diagnosed diabetes and selected risk factors for all U.S. counties to help target and optimize the resources for diabetes control and prevention.