Molecular Epidemiology of Laguna Negra Virus, Mato Grosso State, Brazil - Vol. 18 No. 6 - June 2012 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC
Respiratory infections articles
Volume 18, Number 6–June 2012
Volume 18, Number 6—June 2012
Molecular Epidemiology of Laguna Negra Virus, Mato Grosso State, Brazil
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a manifestation of an emerging zoonosis caused by New World viruses of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus. Hantavirus is transmitted to humans by inhalation of aerosols of excreta from infected rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae (Rodentia, Cricetidae) (1,2). HPS was initially reported during an epidemic of severe respiratory disease that occurred in the southwestern United States in 1993 (1). HPS was subsequently identified in Brazil and other Latin American countries, which facilitated the recognition of new hantavirus species such as Laguna Negra virus (LNV), Andes virus, Choclo virus, Juquitiba virus, Araraquara virus, Castelo dos Sonhos virus, Anajatuba virus, as well as several other viruses detected in wild rodents which are not associated with HPS (3–9). Like particles of other bunyaviruses, hantavirus particles are spherical or pleomorphic and measure 80–120 nm in diameter; their genome comprises 3 RNA segments, and the small RNA fragment is used to characterize the nucleoprotein (N) gene and the hantavirus species (2).
We associated Laguna Negra virus with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and a previously unidentified potential host, the Calomys callidus rodent. Genetic testing revealed homologous sequencing in specimens from 20 humans and 8 mice. Further epidemiologic studies may lead to control of HPS in Mato Grosso State.
During 1993–2009, a total of 1,246 cases of HPS were reported in Brazil; the state of Mato Grosso reported the fourth highest case count, diagnosed mainly in the municipalities of Tangará da Serra and Campo Novo do Parecis. However, the circulating hantavirus species and its host remained unknown, and identification of these factors were the main objectives of this study.