What is the official name of the SLC2A9 gene?
The official name of this gene is “solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 9.”
SLC2A9 is the gene's official symbol. The SLC2A9 gene is also known by other names, listed below.
Read more about gene names and symbols on the About page.
What is the normal function of the SLC2A9 gene?
The SLC2A9 gene provides instructions for making a protein called glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9). This protein is found mainly in the kidneys, specifically in structures called proximal tubules. These structures help to reabsorb needed nutrients, water, and other materials into the blood and excrete unneeded substances into the urine. Within the proximal tubules, the GLUT9 protein helps transport a substance called uric acid. Uric acid is a byproduct of certain normal chemical reactions in the body. In the bloodstream it acts as an antioxidant, protecting cells from the damaging effects of unstable molecules called free radicals. However, having too much uric acid in the body is toxic, so excess uric acid is removed from the body in urine. The GLUT9 protein helps reabsorb uric acid (or a similar version of this substance called urate) into the bloodstream or release it into the urine, depending on the body's needs. Most uric acid that is filtered through the kidneys is reabsorbed into the bloodstream; about 10 percent is released into urine.
The GLUT9 protein also plays a role in reabsorbing and excreting the simple sugar glucose.
Does the SLC2A9 gene share characteristics with other genes?
The SLC2A9 gene belongs to a family of genes called SLC (solute carriers).
A gene family is a group of genes that share important characteristics. Classifying individual genes into families helps researchers describe how genes are related to each other. For more information, see What are gene families? in the Handbook.
How are changes in the SLC2A9 gene related to health conditions?
- renal hypouricemia - caused by mutations in the SLC2A9 gene
- At least 13 mutations in the SLC2A9 gene have been found to cause renal hypouricemia. This condition results in a reduced amount of uric acid in the blood. Renal hypouricemia often does not cause any health problems but can lead to pain and nausea after exercise, kidney stones, or blood in the urine (hematuria). Most of the mutations that cause renal hypouricemia replace single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the GLUT9 protein and severely reduce or eliminate the protein's ability to reabsorb uric acid in the bloodstream. As a result, an excessive amount of uric acid is lost through the urine. While it is not clear how these changes in uric acid levels lead to the signs and symptoms of renal hypouricemia, it is likely that the loss of uric acid's antioxidant properties in combination with the increase in uric acid passing through the kidneys to be released in urine contribute to the characteristic features of this condition.
- other disorders - associated with the SLC2A9 gene
- Some studies have found variations in the SLC2A9 gene to be associated with a condition called gout, which is a form of arthritis resulting from uric acid crystals in the joints. These variants impair the GLUT9 protein's ability to release uric acid into the urine. As a result, too much uric acid is reabsorbed into the bloodstream, causing a buildup of uric acid in the body. This excess uric acid often accumulates in the body's joints in the form of crystals, leading to painful arthritis. Other studies, however, have not found an association between SLC2A9 gene variants and gout. While the role of the SLC2A9 gene in gout may be unclear, it is known that a combination of lifestyle, genetic, and environmental factors play a part in determining the risk of this complex disorder.
Where is the SLC2A9 gene located?
Cytogenetic Location: 4p16.1
Molecular Location on chromosome 4: base pairs 9,779,806 to 10,040,247
The SLC2A9 gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 4 at position 16.1.
More precisely, the SLC2A9 gene is located from base pair 9,779,806 to base pair 10,040,247 on chromosome 4.
See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? in the Handbook.
Where can I find additional information about SLC2A9?
You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about SLC2A9 helpful.
- Educational resources - Information pages
- Genetic Testing Registry - Repository of genetic test information (1 link)
You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.
PubMed- Recent literature OMIM- Genetic disorder catalog
- Research Resources - Tools for researchers (4 links)
What other names do people use for the SLC2A9 gene or gene products?
- glucose transporter type 9
- human glucose transporter-like protein-9
- solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 9
- urate voltage-driven efflux transporter 1
See How are genetic conditions and genes named? in the Handbook.
Where can I find general information about genes?
The Handbook provides basic information about genetics in clear language.
- What is DNA?
- What is a gene?
- How do genes direct the production of proteins?
- How can gene mutations affect health and development?
These links provide additional genetics resources that may be useful.
What glossary definitions help with understanding SLC2A9?
acids ; arthritis ; carrier ; excrete ; free radicals ; gene ; glucose ; gout ; hematuria ; kidney ;kidney stones ; protein ; proximal ; renal ; simple sugar ; solute ; toxic ; uric acid ; voltage
You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary.
See also Understanding Medical Terminology.
References (7 links)
The resources on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice. Users seeking information about a personal genetic disease, syndrome, or condition should consult with a qualified healthcare professional. See How can I find a genetics professional in my area? in the Handbook.
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