Antiretroviral Therapy Enrollment and Outcomes Among HIV-Infected Adolescents and Young Adults Compared with Older Adults — Seven African Countries, 2004–2013
Adolescent and young adult antiretroviral therapy (ART) enrollees, aged 15-24 years, in seven African countries were mostly female, unemployed, unmarried, commonly pregnant, and had significantly higher rates of loss to follow-up from ART than older adults. Evidence-based interventions to reduce loss to follow-up for adolescent and young adult ART enrollees in Africa are urgently needed as this could help reduce mortality and HIV incidence in this age group
Provision of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV-Positive TB Patients — 19 Countries, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2009–2013
All HIV-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients should receive antiretroviral therapy, which reduces the incidence of HIV-associated TB and reduces mortality among HIV-positive TB patients. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces the incidence of HIV-associated TB disease, and early initiation of ART after the start of TB treatment reduces progression of HIV infection and death among HIV-positive TB patients.
Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults — United States, 2005–2013
The report underscores the need to fully implement effective actions to successfully reduce smoking. A combination oftobacco price increases, smoke-free laws, high-impact media campaigns, and easy access to quitting assistance, are critical to reducing cigarette smoking and smoking-related disease and death, particularly among subpopulations with the greatest burden. Cigarette smoking among U.S. adults declined from 20.9 percent in 2005 to 17.8 percent in 2013.