For Health Care Professionals
Infection with non-polio enteroviruses can be confirmed by:
- isolating or identifying the virus in cell culture, or
- polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.
Non-polio enteroviruses can be detected in stool or rectal swabs and respiratory specimens (including from the throat). Depending on the symptoms, other specimen types, such as cerebrospinal fluid, blister fluid, and blood, can be collected for testing. For more information, see Specimen Collection, Storage, & Shipment.
A positive laboratory test for non-polio enteroviruses from certain specimens, such as rectal or respiratory swab, does not necessarily mean the virus is the cause of infection. Non-polio enteroviruses can be shed for an extended period of time after the symptoms have resolved.
- American Academy of Pediatrics. Section 3: Enterovirus (nonpoliovirus) and parechovirus infections (group A and B coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, numbered enteroviruses, and human parechoviruses) – clinical manifestations. In Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Pickering LK, ed. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2012.
NOTE: for recommendations on clinical evaluation, reporting, and treatment of EV-D68 as well as laboratory testing and infection control, see Enterovirus D68 for Health Care Professionals.