J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Jan;52(1):201-11. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01973-13. Epub 2013 Nov 6.
Prevalence of Sequence Types among Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 in the United States from 1982 to 2012.
Since the establishment of sequence-based typing as the gold standard for DNA-based typing of Legionella pneumophila, the Legionella laboratory at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has conducted routine sequence-based typing (SBT) analysis of all incoming L. pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) isolates to identify potential links between cases and to better understand genetic diversity and clonal expansion among L. pneumophila bacteria. Retrospective genotyping of Lp1 isolates from sporadic cases and Legionnaires' disease (LD) outbreaks deposited into the CDC reference collection since 1982 has been completed. For this study, we compared the distribution of sequence types (STs) among Lp1 isolates implicated in 26 outbreaks in the United States, 571 clinical isolates from sporadic cases of LD in the United States, and 149 environmental isolates with no known association with LD. The Lp1 isolates under study had been deposited into our collection between 1982 and 2012. We identified 17 outbreak-associated STs, 153 sporadic STs, and 49 environmental STs. We observed that Lp1 STs from outbreaks and sporadic cases are more similar to each other than either group is to environmental STs. The most frequent ST for both sporadic and environmental isolates was ST1, accounting for 25% and 49% of the total number of isolates, respectively. The STs shared by both outbreak-associated and sporadic Lp1 included ST1, ST35, ST36, ST37, and ST222. The STs most commonly found in sporadic and outbreak-associated Lp1 populations may have an increased ability to cause disease and thus may require special attention when detected.
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