domingo, 22 de septiembre de 2013

A Snapshot of Pediatric Cancers - National Cancer Institute

A Snapshot of Pediatric Cancers - National Cancer Institute

  National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health

A Snapshot of Pediatric Cancers

Incidence and Mortality

Cancer is the leading cause of death by disease among U.S. children between infancy and age 14. Approximately 12,060 new cases of pediatric cancer are expected to be diagnosed in children aged 0–14 years in 2012. The major types of childhood cancers are leukemias and brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors, which account for more than half of new cases. White and Hispanic children are more likely than children from any other racial or ethnic group to develop cancer.
Although the incidence of invasive cancer in children has increased slightly over the past 30 years, mortality rates have declined by more than 50 percent for many childhood cancers.1 The combined 5-year survival for all childhood cancers has improved from 63 percent in the mid-1970s to 83 percent today. The progress in survival rates is largely attributable to improvements in treatments and to the high proportion of patients participating in clinical trials.
The causes of most childhood cancers are unknown, and for the most part they cannot be prevented. In rare cases, children who are at increased risk of developing a certain cancer (for example, colorectal cancer) due to inherited genetic alterations may have surgery to prevent it. Depending on the type of cancer, children may receive different standard treatments, including surgery, chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid diversion, radiation therapy, watchful waiting, chemotherapy with stem cell transplant, biological therapy, or targeted therapy.
Charts showing U.S. incidence and mortality rates from 1989 to 2009 for pediatric cancer. Incidence rates have remained steady over the 20 year period, apporximately 14 per 100,000 children. Mortality rates have sharply reduced, down to just over 2 per 100,000 children. White and hispanic children have the highest incidence rates.

Trends in NCI Funding for Pediatric Cancers1 Research

The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) investment2 in pediatric cancers research increased from $172.7 million in fiscal year (FY) 2007 to $195.5 million in FY 2011. In addition to this funding, NCI supported $60.4 million in pediatric cancers research in FY 2009 and 2010 using funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA).3
Chart showing NCI's investment in pediatric cancer research from 2007 to 2011. NCI invested 127.7 million in 2007, 189.8 million in 2008, 192.8 million in 2009, 197.1 million in 2010, and 195.5 million in 2011. NCI's overall budget during those years ranged from 4.79 billion to 5.1 billion.

Examples of NCI Activities Relevant to Pediatric Cancers

  • The Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments (TARGET) initiative is identifying and validating therapeutic targets to develop new, more-effective treatments for children with pediatric cancers.
  • The Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program (PPTP) Exit Disclaimer evaluates new agents against childhood solid tumor and leukemia models.
  • The NCI-supported Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) is following more than 14,000 childhood cancer survivors, with approximately 3,700 siblings of survivors serving as control subjects, to assess mortality rates, determine risks of developing subsequent cancers, and better understand the long-term effects of cancer treatments on the heart, the lungs, and fertility.
  • The Center for Cancer Research's Pediatric Oncology Branch conducts translational research studies aimed at improving outcomes for children with cancer and genetic tumor predisposition syndromes.
  • In collaboration with the Children's Oncology Group, NCI is conducting a number of studies of Genetic Modifiers of Osteogenic Sarcoma to identify genetic variants linked to the risk of developing this bone cancer, which has peaks in incidence both in early adolescence and later in life.
  • NCI's Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program supports three Childhood Cancer Epidemiology Consortia that conduct multidisciplinary research on childhood cancer risk factors and new therapies.

Selected Advances in Pediatric Cancers Research

  • Using data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, researchers found that poor physical health and neurocognitive function are associated with unemployment in survivors of childhood cancer. Published August 2011. [PubMed Abstract]
  • Researchers identified genetic variants associated with an increased risk of second primary cancers in survivors of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma who received radiation therapy. Reported August 2011.
  • Results of an epigenetic and genomic study suggest that blocking the activity of a protein called spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) has the potential to benefit children with retinoblastoma. Published January 2012. [PubMed Abstract]
  • A long-term follow-up study showed that children treated for advanced glioma have impairments in neuropsychological functioning but have a quality of life within or above the normal range. Published February 2012. [PubMed Abstract]
  • See this PubMed list of selected free full-text journal articles on NCI-supported research relevant to pediatric cancer. You can also search PubMed for additional scientific articles.
Chart showing NCI's ovarian cancer research portfolio. The percentage of dollars spent by scientific area in 2011 were 44% for treatment, 19% for biology, 12% for cancer control, survivorship and outcomes research, 13% for etiology (causes of cancer), 6% for early diagnosis, detection and prognosis, 4% for scientific model systems and 2% for prevention.

Additional Resources for Pediatric Cancers

  • 1 Includes cancers in children 0–18 years of age. Does not include research on pediatric AIDS, infant mortality, science enrichment, or anti-smoking.
  • 2 The estimated NCI investment is based on funding associated with a broad range of peer-reviewed scientific activities. For additional information on research planning and budgeting at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), see About NIH.
  • 3 For more information regarding ARRA funding at NCI, see Recovery Act Funding at NCI.
  • 4 Scientific Area Codes Exit Disclaimer
  • 5 NCI Funded Research Portfolio

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