jueves, 4 de octubre de 2012

Superior mesenteric artery syndrome ► Question and Answers

Question and Answers
Vascular Diseases Update

Vascular Diseases Update

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Superior mesenteric artery syndrome
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I have been recently diagnosed with superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Can you provide me with information about this condition?

  • What is the superior mesenteric artery? (Back to Top)
  • The superior mesenteric artery is a large artery in the abdominal cavity that provides blood to the small intestine, cecum, and colon. The small intestine is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of nutrients from food into the bloodstream.[1]  Click here to view a diagram of the superior mesenteric artery from the MERCK Manual Web site. The superior mesenteric artery makes its way between two layers of the mesentery (membranous tissue which carries blood vessels and lymph glands and attaches organs to the abdominal wall) and crosses over the first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum.  The duodenum is where partly digested foods from the stomach mix with bile from the gall bladder and digestive juices from the pancreas.[2]
  • Last Reviewed: 7/26/2012
  • What is superior mesenteric artery syndrome? (Back to Top)
  • Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a digestive system disorder which occurs when the superior mesenteric artery obstructs the duodenum as it crosses over it. In some persons, possibly because the angle between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery is or becomes more acute than normal, the duodenum is partially obstructed, and the patient becomes symptomatic, usually when precipitating factors accentuate the vascular compression of the duodenum.[3] 
  • Last Reviewed: 7/26/2012
  • What are the symptoms of superior mesenteric artery syndrome? (Back to Top)
  • Symptoms associated with superior mesenteric artery syndrome include abdominal fullness, bloating after meals, nausea and vomiting of partially digested food, and mid-abdominal "crampy pain that may be relieved by the prone or knee-chest position.[3]
  • Last Reviewed: 7/26/2012
  • What causes superior mesenteric artery syndrome? (Back to Top)
  • There are a number of precipitating factors that may contribute to the syndrome, including prolonged bedrest, weight loss, rapid growth, previous abdominal surgery, increased lordosis, use of body casts, and loss of tone in abdominal wall musculature. The syndrome has also been reported in conjunction with pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, and other intra-abdominal inflammatory conditions.[3]
  • Last Reviewed: 5/7/2008
  • What treatment might be used for individuals with superior mesenteric artery syndrome?  (Back to Top)
  • Treatment approaches have included small feedings or a liquid diet.  Symptoms typically improve after restoration of lost weight or removal of a body cast.  Modern imaging techniques can provide noninvasive and detailed anatomic information that can be used in diagnosing the condition and planning surgical approaches.  However, it is important to note that surgery is necessary only rarely.  Duodenojejunostomy (an operation which forms an artifical communication between the duodenum and the jejunum) may relieve the symptoms and has been performed for this condition laparoscopically.[4] 
  • Last Reviewed: 7/26/2012

References  (Back)
  1. Small Intestine. MedlinePlusMedical Encyclopedia. November 8, 2010 Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/19221.htm. Accessed July 26, 2012.
  2. Duodenum. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. October 30, 2010 Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002347.htm. Accessed July 26, 2012.
  3. Juan-R. Malagelada, Carolina Malagelada . Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, 8th edition. In: . Chapter 8 - Nausea and Vomiting. Philadelphia, PA :Saunders Elsevier; 2006:
  4. Lawrence J Brandt. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, 8th edition. In: . Chapter 35 - Vascular Lesions of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Philadelphia, PA:Saunder Elsevier; 2006:

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