Hypoxic retinal Müller cells promote vascular permeability by HIF-1–dependent up-regulation of angiopoietin-like 4
- Xiaoban Xina,
- Murilo Rodriguesa,
- Mahaa Umapathia,
- Fabiana Kashiwabuchia,
- Tao Mab,c,d,
- Savalan Babapoor-Farrokhrana,
- Shuang Wanga,
- Jiadi Hub,c,d,
- Imran Bhuttoa,
- Derek S. Welsbiea,
- Elia J. Duha,
- James T. Handaa,
- Charles G. Eberharta,
- Gerard Luttya,
- Gregg L. Semenzae,f,g,h,i,j,k,
- Silvia Montanerb,c,d, and
- Akrit Sodhia,1
- Edited by Jeremy Nathans, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, and approved July 12, 2013 (received for review October 11, 2012)
Ischemic retinopathies include a diverse group of diseases in which immature retinal vasculature or damage to mature retinal vessels leads to retinal ischemia. The anticipated rise in the worldwide prevalence of diabetes will result in a concurrent increase in the number of patients with vision impairment from diabetic eye disease, the most common cause of ischemic retinopathy. We set out to identify novel hypoxia-inducible genes that promote vascular permeability and may therefore play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic eye disease. We demonstrate that angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is up-regulated by the transcriptional enhancer, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in hypoxic retinal Müller cells, and can promote vascular permeability. Our findings suggest that ANGPTL4 may be a potential therapeutic target for ischemic retinopathies.
Vision loss from ischemic retinopathies commonly results from the accumulation of fluid in the inner retina [macular edema (ME)]. Although the precise events that lead to the development of ME remain under debate, growing evidence supports a role for an ischemia-induced hyperpermeability state regulated, in part, by VEGF. Monthly treatment with anti-VEGF therapies is effective for the treatment of ME but results in a major improvement in vision in a minority of patients, underscoring the need to identify additional therapeutic targets. Using the oxygen-induced retinopathy mouse model for ischemic retinopathy, we provide evidence showing that hypoxic Müller cells promote vascular permeability by stabilizing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and secreting angiogenic cytokines. Blocking HIF-1α translation with digoxin inhibits the promotion of endothelial cell permeability in vitro and retinal edema in vivo. Interestingly, Müller cells require HIF—but not VEGF—to promote vascular permeability, suggesting that other HIF-dependent factors may contribute to the development of ME. Using gene expression analysis, we identify angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) as a cytokine up-regulated by HIF-1 in hypoxic Müller cells in vitro and the ischemic inner retina in vivo. ANGPTL4 is critical and sufficient to promote vessel permeability by hypoxic Müller cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of retinal tissue from patients with diabetic eye disease shows that HIF-1α and ANGPTL4 localize to ischemic Müller cells. Our results suggest that ANGPTL4 may play an important role in promoting vessel permeability in ischemic retinopathies and could be an important target for the treatment of ME.
- 1To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: email@example.com.
- Author contributions: A.S. designed research; X.X., M.R., M.U., F.K., T.M., S.B.-F., S.W., J.H., I.B., and D.S.W. performed research; X.X., M.R., E.J.D., J.T.H., C.G.E., G.L., G.L.S., S.M., and A.S. analyzed data; and A.S. wrote the paper.
- The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- This article is a PNAS Direct Submission.
- This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1073/pnas.1217091110/-/DCSupplemental.
Freely available online through the PNAS open access option.
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