viernes, 22 de mayo de 2015

CDC MMWR News Synopsis for May 21, 2015

MMWR- Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report                          
MMWR News Synopsis for May 21, 2015

Geographic Disparity of Severe Vision Loss in the United States, 2009–2013

An analysis of U.S. county-level data  found a significant correlation between severe vision loss and poverty. Southern states had the highest prevalence of severe vision loss and poverty. Severe vision loss (SVL) often affects activities of daily living, leads to depression and social isolation, and increases the risk of falls and injuries. Limited data and research are available at the local levels, where interventions and policy decisions to reduce the burden of vision loss and eliminate disparities are often developed and implemented.After examining county-level data from the American Community Survey, SVL prevalence was strongly correlated with poverty. The majority of counties in the top 25 percent for both SVL and poverty were primarily in the southern United States.

Fatal and Nonfatal Drowning Outcomes Related to Dangerous Underwater Breath-Holding Behaviors — New York State, 1988–2011

Drowning is a preventable public health risk. Through education and policy interventions and increased awareness of these dangerous swimming behaviors, the aquatic health and safety community can play a significant role in decreasing fatalities among all recreational populations. This report identifies a class of swimming behaviors, designated dangerous underwater breath-holding behaviors (DUBBs), that can lead to fatal drowning. These behaviors could easily be prevented to decrease the risk of drowning among otherwise healthy swimmers. These findings expand the domain of active drowning surveillance to consider the epidemiology of contributing behaviors in fatal and non-fatal drowning incidents.

Tetanus-Diphtheria-Pertussis Vaccination Coverage Before, During, and After Pregnancy — 16 States and New York City, 2011

Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination coverage during pregnancy is low. PRAMS data can be used to monitor Tdap vaccination coverage and to develop vaccination promotion strategies. Infants have substantially higher rates of pertussis and the largest burden of pertussis-related deaths. Maternal vaccination with Tdap vaccine protects infants from pertussis. In 2012, the Advisory Committee on Immunizations Practices (ACIP) expanded the previous Tdap vaccination recommendation for pregnant women, advising pregnant women to be vaccinated with Tdap during each pregnancy to provide optimal concentration of maternal antibodies for each infant. The PRAMS data from 2011 show that the median coverage before pregnancy was 13.9 percent; during pregnancy it was 9.8 percent and after delivery it was 30.9 percent. The information from state level variation and Tdap coverage around the time of pregnancy can be used to promote Tdap vaccination of pregnant women and inform health care providers on the importance of Tdap vaccination during pregnancy.

Progress Toward Polio Eradication — Worldwide, 2014–2015

Worldwide polio eradication appears possible in the near future, but will require a continued high level of commitment from all countries to ensure all people are vaccinated and that new cases can be promptly detected by high-quality surveillance. In 2014 and 2015, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative took important steps closer to complete world-wide eradication of the virus that causes polio. Outbreaks of polio in three different geographic areas – the Horn of Africa, Central Africa, and the Middle East – were all apparently stopped in 2014. In Nigeria, until recently one of the hot-beds of poliovirus infection, there have been no new reported cases since July 2014. Polio continues to circulate In Pakistan and Afghanistan in 2015, where efforts are continually challenged by conflict and security threats. Worldwide elimination of polio will require a continued commitment to strengthened surveillance to promptly detect new cases and high quality vaccination campaigns with new approaches to reach and vaccinate children in the few remaining pockets of infection.

State-specific Prevalence of Current Cigarette Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Adults Aged ≥18 years — United States, 2011–2013

These findings underscore the importance of effective population-based interventions focused on reducing the use of all tobacco products. From 2011 to 2013, there was a decline in current cigarette smoking prevalence in 26 states. During the same period, use of smokeless tobacco significantly increased in Louisiana, Montana, South Carolina, and West Virginia. Additionally, the concurrent use of cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco significantly increased in Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico and West Virginia. The use of more than one tobacco product is concerning because adults who use both cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco have higher levels of nicotine dependence and are less likely to report planning to quit than those who exclusively smoke cigarettes. Evidence-based, statewide tobacco control programs that are comprehensive, sustained, and accountable have been shown to reduce smoking rates, as well as tobacco-related diseases and deaths.

Notes from the Field:
Hepatitis E Outbreak Among Refugees from South Sudan — Gambella, Ethiopia, April 2014–January 2015

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