April is National Child Abuse Prevention Month
April is National Child Abuse Prevention Month. Learn more about preventing child abuse and neglect in your community.
Prevent Child Maltreatment
The Division of Violence Prevention at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducts research and programs to better understand the problem of child maltreatment and to prevent it before it begins. Essentials for Childhood is CDC's framework for preventing child maltreatment and efforts are focused on assuring safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments for all children.
Facts about Child Maltreatment
Child Maltreatment is a significant public health problem in the United States.
- According to Child Protective Service agencies, more than 686,000 children were victims of maltreatment in 2012.
- Another 1,640 children died in the United States in 2012 from abuse and neglect.
- The financial costs for victims and society are substantial. A recent CDC study showed that the total lifetime estimated financial cost associated with just 1 year of confirmed cases of child maltreatment is $124 billion.
Abused children often suffer physical injuries including cuts, bruises, burns, and broken bones. Physical injury is far from the only negative impact of maltreatment—it can also affect broader health outcomes, mental health, social development, and risk-taking behavior into adolescence and adulthood.
Child maltreatment includes all types of abuse and neglect of a child under the age of 18 by a parent or caregiver that results in harm or potential harm. There are four common types of abuse:
- Physical abuse is the use of physical force, such as hitting, kicking, shaking, burning, or other shows of force against a child.
- Sexual abuse involves engaging a child in sexual acts. It includes behaviors such as fondling, penetration, and exposing a child to other sexual activities.
- Emotional abuse refers to behaviors that harm a child's self-worth or emotional well-being. Examples include name calling, shaming, rejection, withholding love, and threatening.
- Neglect is the failure to meet a child's basic physical and emotional needs. These needs include housing, food, clothing, education, and access to medical care.
Child maltreatment causes stress that can disrupt early brain development, and serious chronic stress can harm the development of the nervous and immune systems. As a result, children who are abused or neglected are at higher risk for health problems as adults. These problems include alcoholism, depression, drug abuse, eating disorders, obesity, high-risk sexual behaviors, smoking, suicide, and certain chronic diseases.
Child Maltreatment is Preventable
CDC works to stop child maltreatment, including abuse and neglect, before it initially occurs. In doing this, CDC promotes the development of safe, stable, and nurturing relationships and environments between children and their parents or caregivers. Children's experiences are defined through their environments (such as homes, schools, and neighborhoods) and relationships with parents, teachers, and other caregivers. Healthy relationships act as a buffer against adverse childhood experiences. They are necessary to ensure the long-term physical and emotional well-being of children.
Join CDC's Initiative to Prevent Child Maltreatment
Safe, stable, and nurturing relationships and environments are essential to prevent child maltreatment and to assure children reach their full potential. The Essentials for Childhoodinitiative has a technical package that proposes evidence-based strategies communities can consider to promote relationships and environments that help children grow up to be healthy and productive citizens.
The Essentials for Childhood technical package [PDF - 6.6MB] is intended for communities committed to the positive development of children and families, and specifically to prevent child abuse and neglect. While child maltreatment is a significant public health problem, it is also a preventable one. The steps suggested in the Essentials for Childhood technical package—along with your commitment to preventing child maltreatment—can help create neighborhoods, communities, and a world in which every child can thrive.
Additional CDC Resource for State Health Departments
The Public Health Leadership (PHL) Initiative toolkit for child maltreatment prevention was developed to help state health departments promote and enhance child maltreatment prevention efforts. The toolkit and related resources, such as videos, an infographic, and expert commentaries are available on VetoViolence.
More Information about Child Maltreatment
- Understanding Child Maltreatment Fact Sheet [PDF - 178KB]
- Child Maltreatment Facts at a Glance [PDF - 140KB]
- Technical Package for Essentials for Childhood
- Fact Sheet Summarizing the Essentials for Childhood Technical Package [PDF - 137KB]
- Better Start: Child Maltreatment Prevention as a Public Health Priority [PDF 703]
- CDC's Division of Violence Prevention
- Adverse Childhood Experiences Study
- Economic Costs of Child Maltreatment
- CDC's Role in Child Maltreatment Prevention