Novel G10P Rotavirus Strain, Northern Territory, Australia - Vol. 19 No. 8 - August 2013 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC
Table of Contents
Volume 19, Number 8–August 2013
Volume 19, Number 8—August 2013
Novel G10P Rotavirus Strain, Northern Territory, Australia
Group A rotavirus infection is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. The rotavirus genome consists of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA encoding 6 structural viral proteins (VP1–4, VP6, VP7) and 6 nonstructural proteins (NSP 1–5/6) (1). Genotypes are assigned on the basis of 2 outer capsid proteins into G (VP7) and P (VP4) genotypes; these proteins also elicit type-specific and cross-reactive neutralizing antibody responses (1). Strains that include genotypes G1P, G2P, G3P, G4P, and G9P cause most rotavirus disease in humans (1). Since 2008, rotaviruses have been classified by using the open reading frame of each gene. The nomenclature Gx-P[x]-Ix-Rx-Cx-Mx-Ax-Nx-Tx-Ex-Hx represents the genotypes of the gene segments encoding VP7-VP4-VP6-VP1-VP2-VP3-NSP1-NSP2-NSP3-NSP4-NSP5/6 (2). To date, 27 G, 35 P, 16 I, 9 R, 9 C, 8 M, 16 A, 9 N, 12 T, 14 E, and 11 H genotypes have been described (2).
AbstractWe identified a genotype G10P rotavirus strain in 5 children and 1 adult with acute gastroenteritis from the Northern Territory, Australia. Full genome sequence analysis identified an artiodactyl-like (bovine, ovine, and camelid) G10-P-I2-R2-C2-M2-A11-N2-T6-E2-H3 genome constellation. This finding suggests artiodactyl-to-human transmission and strengthens the need to continue rotavirus strain surveillance.
Two live oral vaccines are available globally: Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) and RotaTeq (Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA). Rotarix is a monovalent vaccine that contains a single human G1P strain (3). RotaTeq is a pentavalent vaccine comprised of 5 human–bovine reassortant virus strains (3). Both vaccines were introduced into the Australian National Childhood Immunization Program in July 2007. The strategy of a rotavirus vaccination program is to target the most frequently circulating rotavirus strain(s) and provide homotypic and heterotypic protection.
G10P rotavirus strains are rarely reported as the source of infection in humans. Of 7 previously reported G10P rotavirus infections, 1 each was in the United Kingdom and Thailand and 5 were in Slovenia (4). During 2011, the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program identified 6 G10P strains in the Northern Territory (NT). We report the characterization of G10P strains detected in Australia.