jueves, 8 de agosto de 2013

Novel G10P[14] Rotavirus Strain, Northern Territory, Australia - Vol. 19 No. 8 - August 2013 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC

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Novel G10P[14] Rotavirus Strain, Northern Territory, Australia - Vol. 19 No. 8 - August 2013 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC
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Volume 19, Number 8–August 2013


Volume 19, Number 8—August 2013


Novel G10P[14] Rotavirus Strain, Northern Territory, Australia

Daniel Cowley1Comments to Author , Celeste M. Donato1, Susie Roczo-Farkas, and Carl D. Kirkwood
Author affiliations: Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (D. Cowley, C.M. Donato, S. Roczo-Farkas, C.D. Kirkwood); La Trobe University, Melbourne (C.M. Donato, C.D. Kirkwood)
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We identified a genotype G10P[14] rotavirus strain in 5 children and 1 adult with acute gastroenteritis from the Northern Territory, Australia. Full genome sequence analysis identified an artiodactyl-like (bovine, ovine, and camelid) G10-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A11-N2-T6-E2-H3 genome constellation. This finding suggests artiodactyl-to-human transmission and strengthens the need to continue rotavirus strain surveillance.
Group A rotavirus infection is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. The rotavirus genome consists of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA encoding 6 structural viral proteins (VP1–4, VP6, VP7) and 6 nonstructural proteins (NSP 1–5/6) (1). Genotypes are assigned on the basis of 2 outer capsid proteins into G (VP7) and P (VP4) genotypes; these proteins also elicit type-specific and cross-reactive neutralizing antibody responses (1). Strains that include genotypes G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], and G9P[8] cause most rotavirus disease in humans (1). Since 2008, rotaviruses have been classified by using the open reading frame of each gene. The nomenclature Gx-P[x]-Ix-Rx-Cx-Mx-Ax-Nx-Tx-Ex-Hx represents the genotypes of the gene segments encoding VP7-VP4-VP6-VP1-VP2-VP3-NSP1-NSP2-NSP3-NSP4-NSP5/6 (2). To date, 27 G, 35 P, 16 I, 9 R, 9 C, 8 M, 16 A, 9 N, 12 T, 14 E, and 11 H genotypes have been described (2).
Two live oral vaccines are available globally: Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) and RotaTeq (Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA). Rotarix is a monovalent vaccine that contains a single human G1P[8] strain (3). RotaTeq is a pentavalent vaccine comprised of 5 human–bovine reassortant virus strains (3). Both vaccines were introduced into the Australian National Childhood Immunization Program in July 2007. The strategy of a rotavirus vaccination program is to target the most frequently circulating rotavirus strain(s) and provide homotypic and heterotypic protection.
G10P[14] rotavirus strains are rarely reported as the source of infection in humans. Of 7 previously reported G10P[4] rotavirus infections, 1 each was in the United Kingdom and Thailand and 5 were in Slovenia (4). During 2011, the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program identified 6 G10P[14] strains in the Northern Territory (NT). We report the characterization of G10P[14] strains detected in Australia.

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