Increased Risk of Colorectal Neoplasia Among Family Members of Patients with Colorectal Cancer: a Population-Based Study in Utah.
BACKGROUND: & Aims: Colorectal cancer (CRC) frequently develops in multiple members of the same families, but more data are needed to prepare effective screening guidelines. We quantified the risk of CRC and adenomas in first-degree relatives (FDRs) and second-degree relatives and first cousins of individuals with CRC, and stratified risk based on age of cancer diagnosis.
METHODS: We performed a case-control study of Utah residents, 50-80 years old, who underwent colonoscopy from 1995 through 2009. Index cases (exposed to colonoscopy) were colonoscopy patients with a CRC diagnosis. Age- and sex-matched individuals, unexposed to colonoscopy, (controls) were selected to form the comparison groups for determining risk in relatives. Colonoscopy results were linked to cancer and pedigree information from the Utah Population Database to investigate familial aggregation of colorectal neoplasia using Cox regression analysis.
RESULTS: Of 126,936 patients who underwent a colonoscopy, 3804 were diagnosed with CRC and defined the index cases. FDRs had an increased risk of CRC (hazard rate ratio [HRR]=1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI],1.59-2.03), as did second-degree relatives (HRR=1.32; 95% CI, 1.19-1.47) and first cousins (HRR=1.15; 95% CI, 1.07-1.25), compared to relatives of controls. This risk was greater for FDRs when index patients developed CRC at ages younger than 60 years (HRR=2.11; 95% CI, 1.70-2.63), compared to older than 60 years (HRR=1.77; 95% CI, 1.58-1.99). The risk of adenomas (HRR=1.82; 95% CI, 1.66-2.00) and adenomas with villous histology (HRR= 2.43; 95% CI, 1.96-3.01) were also increased in FDRs. Three percent of CRCs in FDR's would have been missed if the current guidelines, which stratify screening recommendations by the age of the proband, were strictly followed.
CONCLUSIONS: FDR, second-degree relatives, and first cousins of patients who undergo colonoscopy and are found to have CRC have significant increases in risk of colorectal neoplasia. These data should be considered when establishing CRC screening guidelines for individuals and families.Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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