Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Expert Panel Meetings on Prevention and Treatment of Anthrax in Adults - Volume 20, Number 2—February 2014 - Emerging Infectious Disease journal - CDC
Volume 20, Number 2—February 2014
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Expert Panel Meetings on Prevention and Treatment of Anthrax in Adults
Katherine A. Hendricks, Mary E. Wright, Sean V. Shadomy, John S. Bradley, Meredith G. Morrow, Andy T. Pavia, Ethan Rubinstein, Jon-Erik C. Holty, Nancy E. Messonnier, Theresa L. Smith, Nicki Pesik, Tracee A. Treadwell, William A. Bower , and the Workgroup on Anthrax Clinical Guidelines
Author affiliations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (K.A. Hendricks, S.V. Shadomy, M.G. Morrow, N.E. Messonier, T.L. Smith, N. Pesik, T.A. Treadwell, W.A. Bower); National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA (M.E. Wright); University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego, California, USA (J.S. Bradley); University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA (A.T. Pavia); University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada (E. Rubenstein); Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA (J.-E. Holty)
Anthrax has been recognized as an infectious disease of animals and humans for millennia. Within the United States, animal anthrax is reported in most years, but naturally occurring human anthrax is rare. Worldwide, however, the disease is common in wild and domestic animals and not uncommon among persons who interact with animals in agricultural regions of South and Central America, sub-Saharan Africa, central and southwestern Asia, and southern and eastern Europe (1). Biodefense experts often place Bacillus anthracis at or near the top of the list for potential threat agents. Inhalation anthrax is particularly deadly, as demonstrated by the 1979 accidental release of B. anthracis from a military microbiology facility in the Sverdlovsk region of Russia; 88% (66/75) of patients reported with inhalation anthrax died (2). More recently, humans have acquired disease from exposure to spores released purposefully as a bioterrorist weapon (3) and accidentally from naturally occurring sources (4,5).