miércoles, 25 de mayo de 2016

OncoArray – An International Collaboration to Discover Cancer Genetic Ri...

05/25/2016 10:20 AM EDT
The overall goal of the OncoArray Network is to gain new insight into the genetic architecture and mechanisms underlying breast, ovarian, prostate, colorectal, and lung cancers. The Network's major aim is to discover new cancer susceptibility variants. In addition, through fine mapping and high-density genotyping, this project offers an unprecedented opportunity to determine variants in known loci and to identify new - and rarer - variants. Learn more at http://epi.grants.cancer.gov/oncoarray

CDC Around the World: CDC's Work in Vietnam

CDC Around the World: CDC's Work in Vietnam

CDC Around the World

CDC works in Vietnam to address the region's toughest health problems
at their source. View full-sized photo
Spotlighted Topic of the Week: CDC's Work in Vietnam
CDC Zika Updates
In the News
On the Calendar

Blog of the Week
Vietnam EOC gathered for a briefing about the Zika virus. Along with WHO, CDC experts Anthony Mounts, Trang Do, Michael Johansson, and Leisha Nolan provided consultation during the meeting. CDC Vietnam will enhance surveillance and temperature monitoring at border control areas…Read blog


Infographic of the Week
View full-sized infographic

Video of the Week
A VTV4 documentary about CDC experts, Kyle Bond and James Kile, and their work with Vietnamese government partners in HIV/AIDS and influenza prevention, control, and treatment…Watch video

Story of the Week
Vietnam is creating a network of EOCs that will act as a nerve centers for epidemic intelligence, bringing outbreak detection and response even closer. Emergency operations centers are a cornerstone of emergency preparedness and response…Read story


CDC Zika Updates

Zika active transmission map

More resources on the CDC Zika website »

Latest Outbreak Info

On January 22, 2016, CDC activated its Incident Management System and, working through theEmergency Operations Center (EOC), centralized its response to the outbreaks of Zika occurring in the Americas and increased reports of birth defects and Guillain-Barré syndrome in areas affected by Zika. On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) because of clusters of microcephaly and other neurological disorders in some areas affected by Zika. On February 8, 2016, CDC elevated its response efforts to a Level 1 activation, the highest response level at the agency.
CDC is working with international public health partners and with state and local health departments to
  • Alert healthcare providers and the public about Zika.
  • Post travel notices and other travel-related guidance.
  • Provide state health laboratories with diagnostic tests.
  • Monitor and report cases of Zika, which will helps improve our understanding of how and where Zika is spreading.

In the News

Top stories for World Immunization Week
Helio Infectious Disease NewsApril 26, 2016

On the Calendar

May 31: World No Tobacco Day
June 1: Global Day of Parents
June 4: International Day of Innocent Children Victims of Aggression
June 5World Environment Day 
June 12World Day Against Child Labor

This can improve your energy, mood and balance. Try some.

This can improve your energy, mood and balance. Try some.

NIHSH Banner

Do you want to boost your energy, improve your mood, and be steadier on your feet? Try some exercise. Getting regular exercise and physical activity can help you do all of these things – and more.
The information on Benefits of Exercise was developed for NIHSeniorHealth by the National Institute on Aging (NIA).

Get people with Alzheimer’s up and active!

e-Update from the Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center, a service of the National Institute on Aging at N I H

Being active and getting exercise helps people with Alzheimer’s feel better. It works for caregivers, too! Whether it’s walking, gardening, dancing, or something else, physical activity can help keep muscles, joints, and the heart in good shape.
To help a person with Alzheimer’s stay active:
  • Break exercises into simple, easy-to-follow steps.
  • Make sure the person wears comfortable clothes and shoes that fit well and are made for exercise.
  • Be realistic about how much activity can be done at one time. Several 10-minute “mini-workouts” may be best.
Share these messages on social media:

New E-Cigarette Regulations, FDA Creates Final Rule

New E-Cigarette Regulations, FDA Creates Final Rule


Earlier this month the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced a final rule that will extend its authority to all products that meet the statutory definition of “tobacco product,” including e-cigarettes, cigars, hookah tobacco, and pipe tobacco. When the regulation is in place, it will prohibit the sale of all tobacco products to anyone under the age of 18 years – both in person and online. In addition, it will subject all manufacturers, importers, and retailers of newly-regulated tobacco products to any applicable provisions, bringing them in line with other tobacco products that the FDA has regulated since 2009. This includes reporting ingredients and harmful and potentially harmful substances. The final rule also said “[the] FDA envisions that there could be tobacco products developed in the future that provide nicotine delivery through means (e.g., via dermal absorption or intranasal spray) similar to currently marketed medicinal nicotine products, but which are not drugs or devices,” and therefore predictively included these in the definition of “tobacco products.”

Some Background on E-cigarettes

An electronic cigarette (eCig or e-cigarette) is a battery powered appliance that simulates cigarette smoking, but administers nicotine through a vapor. People using an e-cigarette are referring to it as “vaping” – not smoking, as with tobacco cigarettes. The device uses a liquid solution of nicotine and flavorings, inhaled when the e-cigarette is used. Marijuana concentrates can also be added to the liquid solution to vape. When the user exhales, an aerosol intended to resemble smoke is visible.
E-cigarettes have been in the marketplace since 2003 and, until now, there was no regulatory oversight. Manufacturers, many of which also produce traditional cigarettes, market e-cigarettes as a less-harmful alternative and a cessation tool for those wanting to quit. In addition, teen use of e-cigarettes is on the rise. According to the FDA, e-cigarette use for youth in high school increased nearly 800 percent from 2011 to 2014. The addictive nature of nicotine and exposure to the nicotine solution in the device raised questions regarding the benefits and risks of e-cigarettes, both to users and to the people around them – and especially for adolescents. Now, the FDA has stepped in to put some controls in place.

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National Effort Addresses Early Psychosis

National Effort Addresses Early Psychosis


In early 2015, Mary* was in crisis. A sophomore attending the University of Maryland, she had to take leave of her studies because she started having some distracting and disturbing symptoms. Mary had hallucinations and experienced paranoia and delusional thoughts – she was experiencing the onset of psychosis.
She found help through a referral to the OnTrack Maryland team. The program, offered at Family Services, Inc., is designed for young adults who, like Mary, may be experiencing early symptoms of psychosis. It’s one of many programs throughout the country that received distinct funding and support from SAMHSA to address first-break psychosis.
Through a Congressional appropriations bill, SAMHSA is directed to set aside a percentage of Mental Health Block Grants to address serious mental illness, including psychosis. Linking specific funding to address specific mental health disorders began in 2015, as five percent of the amount allocated to each state.
As SAMHSA prepares for a second year of block grant set-aside funding to address psychosis, states are starting to report successful results and inspiring stories of recovery just as they consider how best to use the second year of set-aside budget. The 2016 set-aside increased from 5 percent to 10 percent, and must be used to address first-break psychosis, specifically.

Targeting Youth

With first-break episodes, the person living through the experience may have had a full and functional life until that point. With symptoms, however, psychosis can be intruding, distracting, and even disabling. Getting help early is essential to treat symptoms and provide support so that activities and relationships important to stability and wellness can stay intact.
“The majority of individuals with serious mental illness experience their first symptoms during adolescence or early adulthood, and there are often long delays between the initial onset of symptoms and a person receiving treatment,” said SAMHSA Administrator Kana Enomoto during her testimony to Congress last October. “The consequences of delayed treatment can include loss of family and social supports, reduced educational achievement, disruption of employment, substance use, increased hospitalizations, and reduced prospects for long-term recovery.”
When Mary first interacted with program staff, she had a flat affect, expressionless responses, and had internal thoughts that were distracting and disturbing. She had a hard time setting and achieving goals because she was shy and symptomatic. While she was guarded and seemed to have low self-confidence, when she expressed that she wanted a job, staff saw that as an opportunity to build trust with her so she would be open to other treatment supports.

One State’s Efforts

Understanding Psychosis

    As a mental disorder, schizophrenia and psychosis involve symptoms of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, impaired motor skills, lack of emotional expression, and a decreased ability to engage in day-to-day activities. While psychosis can be experienced at any age, most onset between the ages of 16 and 30. It is estimated that approximately 1 percent of the population in the United States will experience schizophrenia or psychosis at some point in their lifetime.
In Maryland the five percent set-aside of the Federal Block Grant was used to create Coordinated Specialty Care (CSC) teams that included a team leader, a supported employment and education specialist, a recovery coach, and a team psychiatrist, who work collaboratively with youth to identify, assess, and treat early psychosis. The teams, including OnTrack Maryland, were trained extensively to provide services and support to affected young adults and their families.
As with Maryland, many other states are using this team approach to provide wrap-around support for people experiencing first-break psychosis.
For Mary, the OnTrack Maryland team also used Cognitive Behavioral Therapy thought-restructuring techniques, individual therapy, and group therapy to address thought distortions and to manage anxiety and other symptoms Mary was experiencing.
She also connected with a supported employment and education specialist who worked with her to meet her goal to find work. Mary was coached through creating a resume, completing job applications, and practicing interview skills. Within a few months, she landed a job at a retail store where she is still employed. Mary also worked with a recovery coach to build social skills, particularly ways to develop communication skills needed when interacting with managers or customers. By working with the coach, she found it easier to ask for help, negotiate requests, and appropriately manage complaints.

Other States

While the State of Maryland used set-aside funding to build responsive community-based teams, it also expanded outreach and education to academic and behavioral health providers about first-break psychosis. Other states used the dedicated budget to create new programs and expand existing initiatives. Idaho, for instance, started a hospital-based pilot program to work with individuals experiencing serious mental illness; and in Virginia, the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services (DBHDS) used this as an opportunity to learn about the CSC model and other helpful interventions.
“The five percent set-aside requirement, along with the information, resources, and technical assistance SAMHSA provided to the states, led us to focus our transition-age and young adult services initiative on CSC,” said Rhonda Thissen, MSW, Grant Manager of Virginia’s DBHDS. “This population is underserved and has significant unmet needs, and we are pleased to know that the set-aside is being increased.”

The Future

Congress increased the set-aside for the 2016 fiscal year to ten percent, with some changes. While the initial five percent set-aside in 2015 could be used to address serious mental illness and first-break episodes, the increased current funding may only be used for evidence-based programs that address the first episode of psychosis. The Recovery after an Initial Schizophrenia Episode (RAISE)research initiative, supported by the National Institute of Mental Health, found CSC to be an effective treatment to diagnose and treat first episode psychosis, which is why it is the recommended approach.
While CSC is used by many states, there is some flexibility in program design, implementation, and evaluation, as long as it is an evidence-based approach with a focus on first episode psychosis. The set-aside funds cannot be used for primary prevention or preventive intervention for individuals at risk for serious mental illness, but states can determine how best to use the remaining 90 percent of their mental health block grant.
In Maryland, the increase in the set-aside will likely enhance efforts to promote recovery support services, peer support specialists, and supported employment and education. “These support services enable individuals to choose, obtain, maintain, or advance within a community-integrated work and education environment,” said Cynthia Petion, Director of the Office of Planning at the Maryland Behavioral Health Administration. “Additional funding will further training and implementation support, particularly to develop tools to review, measure, and evaluate outcomes.”
For Mary, the benefits from her experience with the CSC team can be seen in how different her life looks now compared to one year ago. She is back at school and taking honors classes. With the treatment and support she received, she is balancing a new schedule that includes work, school, therapy, medication management, recovery coaching, job coaching, and a full family life – and she is dedicated to her ongoing recovery.
* Name changed to protect privacy.

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710/Oil Risks- Perceptions of Marijuana Harms Decrease

710/Oil Risks- Perceptions of Marijuana Harms Decrease


Although marijuana use among youth poses a risk to health, nationally only 1 in 5 adolescents perceived it as such. According to SAMHSA’s 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, this misperception among youth exists at a time when marijuana concentrates continue to become more potent, which is cause for public concern. This demonstrates the need to educate young people about various forms of marijuana and their related health consequences and harms. 

Marijuana Use

According to SAMHSA’s Short Report, “State Estimates of Adolescent Marijuana Use and Perceptions of Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use: 2013 and 2014,” in the 12 to 17 age group, approximately 1.8 million youth reported using marijuana in the past month.

Marijuana Concentrates

The Drug Enforcement Agency describes marijuana concentrate as a substance containing highly potent THC (tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of marijuana). This concentrate is often referred to as oil or “710” (“OIL” spelled upside down and backwards). THC levels in this oil could range from 40 to 80 percent, which is about four times stronger than what is found in a “high grade” marijuana plant.
Using marijuana concentrates is different from smoking marijuana in several ways:
  • Oil is harder to detect. When marijuana is smoked it causes a distinctive smell. But when oil from the marijuana plant is extracted and concentrated, it is odorless, making it harder to detect, for example, in e-cigarettes or foods. Because of this particular characteristic, it could be harder for parents, teachers, and law enforcement to know when marijuana is being used.
“Vaping is much easier to conceal and it is harder to tell if kids are vaping and getting high,” said David Dickinson, M.A., SAMHSA’s Region 10 Administrator. “Teachers may not have a full awareness of what’s happening and THC overdose is a real concern.”

Street Names for Cannabis Extracts & Oils

  • ■ Hash Oil
  • ■ Butane Honey Oil (BHO)
  • ■ Shatter
  • ■ Dabs
  • ■ Honeycomb
  • ■ Honey Oil
  • ■ Budder
  • ■ Crumble
  • ■ Sap
  • ■ Ear Wax
  • ■ Pull-and-Snap or Snap-and-Pull
  • ■ Black Glass
  • ■ Errl
  • ■ 710 (“OIL” spelled upside down and backwards)
  • Oil can be mixed into other products. Oil is also sometimes mixed with other drugs including alcohol, cocaine, methamphetamine, and phencyclidine (PCP), creating an even stronger psychoactive response. It is also commonly added to sweet drinks and foods like brownies that appeal to youth, which can lead to high levels of exposure and can have toxic consequences when accidentally ingested.
“It’s not just smoking that concerns us, edibles and drinkables are also really popular with teens and young adults,” said Charles Smith, Ph.D., SAMHSA’s Region 8 Administrator. People eating a brownie containing marijuana, vaping the oil from an e-cigarette, or mixing it with other drugs may not fully realize the potency or effects until they are feeling unwell or even at a point of crisis from overdose.
There are other problems with marijuana use to consider as well:
  • Additives and other chemicals may be toxic.According to Charles LoDico, MS, F-ABFT, a chemist in SAMHSA’s Division of Workplace Programs, marijuana concentrate can be extracted by using liquid butane, which is a highly flammable carcinogen. In many cases, trace butane remains and, when inhaled, can lead to long-term cognitive impairment and can affect nervous system functioning. And butane isn’t the only potential chemical exposure – pesticides used when growing the plant are also cause for concern. 

The Need for More Research

Jon Perez, Ph.D., SAMHSA’s Region 9 Administrator, said “In the case of marijuana, the science lags behind policy and access. That means we do not yet have a full understanding of the health consequences of marijuana, hash concentrates, or what happens when it’s consumed through e-cigarettes.”
Douglas Tipperman, M.S.W., SAMHSA’s Tobacco Policy Liaison, noted that the record growth of smoke shops in recent years coincides with the emergence of the e-cigarette and the legalization of marijuana. He said, “While research is still needed to fully understand the health effects of e-cigarettes at the individual and population level, we also need to consider how marijuana concentrates in e-cigarettes may also pose additional significant health risks.”
Although more data are needed on the impact of marijuana concentrates, it is clear that in order to prevent use by youth, public education and awareness of the potential health risks are critical.

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