sábado, 30 de agosto de 2014

BioEdge: the latest news and articles about bioethics

BioEdge: the latest news and articles about bioethics

Bioedge

Hi there,
BioEdge passed a milestone this week – our 10,000th subscriber. We are delighted that so many people receive the newsletter and pass it on to their friends. Word of mouth is the best advertising!
However, we feel that our potential readership is really many times this figure, so please encourage friends and colleagues to sign up. It’s free! If you are teaching bioethics at a university, why not suggest that  your students subscribe? It will give them lots of stimulating ideas to ponder.
Cheers,
Michael Cook
Editor
BioEdge


This week in BioEdge
 







by Michael Cook | Aug 30, 2014
The war on Ebola is creating heroes.







by Michael Cook | Aug 30, 2014
A Dutch euthanasia clinic is being investigated for helping an elderly woman to die because she did not want to live in a nursing home.







by Michael Cook | Aug 30, 2014
Aussies are not the only "heartless bastards" in the world of surrogacy.







by Xavier Symons | Aug 30, 2014
In the wake of the recent Thai surrogacy scandals, commentators are debating how the practice of surrogacy should be reformed.







by Xavier Symons | Aug 29, 2014
The debate surrounding Canada's marijuana laws has intensified, with Canadian Medical Association (CMA) president labeling medicinal marijuana "bad medicine".







by Xavier Symons | Aug 29, 2014
As details continue to emerge of Jimmy Savile's horrific crimes, a bioethicist is questioning the complicity of healthcare workers in allowing for the abuses.







by Xavier Symons | Aug 29, 2014
The academic conversation on brain death continues, with the American journal of Bioethics publishing a special issue on the status of death determined by neurological…







by Xavier Symons | Aug 29, 2014
Doctors who failed to raise concerns about colleagues could be struck off, under new guidance being considered by the UK's General Medical Council (GMC).
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BioEdge: the latest news and articles about bioethics

Know Your Terms Initiative

Know Your Terms Initiative



Dept. of Health & Human Services

Pregnancy terms have changed. "Term" has been replaced by more specific definitions that communicate the importance of the last few weeks of pregnancy in infant development. Learn why the new term pregnancy definitions are important to ensuring the best outcomes for mom and baby.

Learn More: Know Your Terms 
Know Your Terms
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Make Swimming Healthier & Safer: Model Aquatic Health Code 1st Edition Released Today

Make Swimming Healthier & Safer: Model Aquatic Health Code 1st Edition Released Today



MAHC 1st Edition

Make Swimming Healthier & Safer: Model Aquatic Health Code 1st Edition Released Today

August 29, 2014

Thank you for your interest in the Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC), a collaborative effort of public health, academia, and industry working to protect individuals, families, and communities from preventable waterborne diseases and injuries through evidence-based guidance. Our vision is “Healthy and Safe Aquatic Experiences for Everyone.” Read below for the latest information.

MAHC 1st Edition now available

Today we launched the nation’s first voluntary guidelines based on science and best practices for improving health and safety at swimming pools and other aquatic venues: The Model Aquatic Health Code 1stEdition. States and localities can use the MAHC to create or update existing pool codes to reduce risk for outbreaks, drowning, and pool-chemical injuries.
Creating the MAHC has been a tremendous process, and CDC thanks the many organizations and individuals who have worked together to develop this document. The MAHC 1st Edition is a product of seven years of work, involving a steering committee, 12 technical committees, 140 people, and input and consensus from public health, aquatics, and academia. In two rounds of public comment, we received more than 4,400 comments—nearly three-quarters of which we accepted to make the MAHC even better.

New materials to promote the MAHC

As we launch the MAHC 1st Edition, we have also updated and created a number of materials to help potential users and stakeholders learn about the MAHC:

Spread the word

Please remind your colleagues that the MAHC 1st Edition is now available. We encourage you to forward this email and/or to use your social media channels to spread the word. You may use, edit, or customize the following sample posts for use on Twitter, Facebook, Google+, etc.:
  • States and localities can help keep swimming healthy and fun. Want to know how? Learn about the new #MAHC: http://go.usa.gov/mXZJ
  • New #MAHC uses latest scientific research to address key public health issues in pools & other aquatic facilities. http://go.usa.gov/mXZJ
  • With new #MAHC, local & state agencies can incorporate the latest science into pool inspection & safety programs. http://go.usa.gov/mXZJ 

Meet the CMAHC

Please check out our new partner, The Conference for the Model Aquatic Health Code (CMAHC) atwww.cmahc.org. The CMAHC is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization created in 2013 to support and improve public health by promoting healthy and safe aquatic experiences for everyone. The CMAHC will serve as a key CDC partner by serving as a national clearinghouse for gathering stakeholder input and advice on needed improvements to the MAHC.

Raising an Anxious Child: MedlinePlus Health News Video

Raising an Anxious Child: MedlinePlus Health News Video

A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine
From the National Institutes of HealthNational Institutes of Health




08/29/2014 10:01 AM EDT

Source: HealthDay - Video
Related MedlinePlus Pages: AnxietyChild Mental HealthParenting

Could Too Much Salt Harm MS Patients?: MedlinePlus

Could Too Much Salt Harm MS Patients?: MedlinePlus

A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine
From the National Institutes of HealthNational Institutes of Health






Could Too Much Salt Harm MS Patients?

Researchers find a link but say it's too soon to recommend reducing sodium intake
Thursday, August 28, 2014
HealthDay news image
Related MedlinePlus Pages
THURSDAY, Aug. 28, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Too much salt in the diet may worsen symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), a new study from Argentina suggests.
"Many environmental factors affect MS, such as vitamin D, smoking and Epstein Barr virus infection. Our study shows that high salt intake may be another environmental factor affecting MS patients," said lead researcher Dr. Mauricio Farez, of the Raul Carrea Institute for Neurological Research in Buenos Aires.
Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the nervous system that causes weakness, visual disturbances, trouble with balance, numbness and thinking and memory problems. The most common form is called relapsing-remitting MS, meaning symptoms subside and then become worsen.
Earlier research found that salt may alter autoimmune response, which is involved in the development of MS.
Farez cautioned that this study does not show that salt causes MS to worsen, but there does seem to be an association.
"This is a small observational study showing a relationship between salt intake and MS disease activity, and these data need to be further validated in larger studies, including different populations," he said.
For the study, Farez's team measured the levels of sodium (the main component of salt), creatinine and vitamin D in the blood and urine of 70 patients with the relapsing-remitting form of MS. Creatinine is a marker of inflammation, and low levels of vitamin D have been associated with MS.
Sodium intake was divided into three levels: less than 2 grams daily, between 2 and 4.8 grams a day, and more than 4.8 grams daily. Current guidelines for heart disease prevention recommend a maximum sodium intake of 1.5 grams to 2.4 grams per day. At the upper end, that's just under half a teaspoon of table salt a day.
Farez's group found that people with daily sodium intake of between 2 and 4.8 grams and those who consume more than 4.8 grams -- a little less than a teaspoon of salt -- were up to four times more likely to have more episodes of worsening MS symptoms as those who consumed the least salt.
To check the progression of the disease in patients' brains, the researchers analyzed X-rays and scans. They found that patients who had the highest salt intake were about 3.4 times more likely to have their disease worsen, compared with those with the lowest salt intake.
Similar results were found in a second group of 52 MS patients, the researchers added.
"It is too soon to say that MS patients should cut their salt intake," Farez said. "Our findings could serve as a basis for clinical trials with salt restriction in MS patients," he said.
The report was published Aug. 28 in the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry.
Salt's influence on MS is a subject of increasing interest, said Nicholas LaRocca, vice president of health care delivery and policy research at the National Multiple Sclerosis Society.
"At this stage you really can't assign cause and effect, but it's beginning to look like there is a significant role of salt in MS disease activity and progression," he said.
The mechanism for this association isn't known, LaRocca said. Salt may make the immune system more prone to the disease, he suggested.
He agreed that there isn't enough evidence to recommend that MS patients reduce salt in their diet.
"However, in a more general sense, we should all be watching our salt intake. We should all be careful about consuming excessive amounts of salt," he said.
For the study, salt intake was estimated from sodium excreted in urine samples the participants provided three times over nine months. In addition, the researchers tracked the course of the patients' MS from 2010 to 2012.
After accounting for factors such as smoking, age, gender, length of time after diagnosis, weight, treatment and vitamin D, the link between more salt and worsening MS remained, the researchers said.
SOURCES: Mauricio Farez, M.D., department of neurology, Raul Carrea Institute for Neurological Research, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Nicholas LaRocca, Ph.D., vice president, health care delivery and policy research, National Multiple Sclerosis Society, New York City; Aug. 28, 2014, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry
HealthDay
More Health News on:
Dietary Sodium
Multiple Sclerosis

More than a quarter-million youth who had never smoked a cigarette used e-cigarettes in 2013 | Press Release | CDC Online Newsroom | CDC

More than a quarter-million youth who had never smoked a cigarette used e-cigarettes in 2013 | Press Release | CDC Online Newsroom | CDC



Press Release

Embagro: Thursday, August 28, 2014
Contact: CDC Media Relations
(404) 639-3286

U.S. Infant Vaccination Rates High

Unvaccinated Still Vulnerable
The vast majority of parents are making sure that their children get vaccinated against potentially serious diseases, according to data from CDC’s 2013 National Immunization Survey (NIS) – Children (19-35 months) published in this week’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).  While vaccination coverage increased or remained stable for all routinely recommended childhood vaccines in 2013, coverage varied by state, and low coverage levels can leave states and communities vulnerable to outbreaks of potentially serious vaccine preventable diseases.
In 2013, vaccination coverage increased or remained stable for all routinely recommended childhood vaccines. Vaccination coverage remained over 90 percent for the vaccines that prevent measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), poliovirus, hepatitis B and varicella, and increased slightly for rotavirus vaccine, from 69 percent in 2012 to 73 percent in 2013, and for 1 or more doses of hepatitis A vaccine from 82 percent in 2012 to 83 percent in 2013. Administration of the birth dose of Hepatitis B rose from 72 percent to 74 percent.  The percentage of children who received no vaccines remained low, at less than 1 percent of children in 2013.
“I want to personally recognize the hard work of doctors and nurses coping with many challenges in the course of clinical work, and commend parents who, despite competing responsibilities, continue to prioritize immunization to keep their children healthy and safe,” said Dr. Anne Schuchat, director of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. “These people are central in keeping young children healthy by ensuring they receive the recommended vaccines on schedule.”

While overall immunization rates remain high, state immunization programs, clinicians, and parents are still challenged in getting all the recommended doses during the second year of life. There are three vaccine series that include a booster dose in the second year of life: the vaccines that prevent diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and Pneumococcal disease (PCV).  Coverage of these boosters remained at similar levels in 2012 and 2013. 
There was lower coverage for these booster doses among children living in poverty, compared to children living at or above the poverty line.  These children also had lower coverage with the vaccines for poliovirus, rotavirus, and the hepatitis B series.  In addition to the booster doses, coverage was lower for black children compared to white children for the vaccine that protects against rotavirus. 
Families who need help paying for childhood vaccines should ask their healthcare professional about the Vaccines for Children program, which provides free vaccines to uninsured children and many others with financial barriers. For help in finding a local healthcare professional who participates in the program, parents can contact their state health department or visitwww.cdc.gov/features/vfcprogram.
Immunization coverage also varied by state, both for individual vaccines and for the series measure, which provides a shorthand assessment of overall performance by looking at the completion of immunizations against 11 different diseases (4 doses of DTaP , 3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, 1 dose of measles-containing vaccine, full series of Hib vaccine,3 doses of Hep B vaccine, 1 dose of varicella vaccine, and 4 doses of PCV). In that series measure, the range was from 82 percent in Rhode Island to 57 percent in Arkansas.  The most critical coverage variation was the 17 states that had less than 90 percent coverage with the MMR vaccine.
National coverage of children 19-35 months old with at least one dose of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine is 92 percent.  While seemingly high, 1 in 12 children did not receive their first dose of MMR vaccine on time, underscoring a sizeable proportion of children that remain susceptible.  As of Aug. 22, 2014, 592 measles cases had been preliminarily reported in the United States, the most cases of any year since 1994. Measles is most frequently brought to the U.S. by unvaccinated U.S. travelers returning from abroad, and it can spread quickly in communities with groups of unvaccinated and under-vaccinated people.
The NIS is an annual national immunization report card for infants and toddlers.  It describes national, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage estimates among children 19-35 months old.  For more information on the 2013 NIS, visit http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nis.htm.          
The CDC recommends that all children be vaccinated according to the recommended schedule.  Parents with questions or concerns should talk with their child’s doctor or visit CDC’s vaccine website for parents at www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents or visit www.vaccines.gov.
Today's article will be available on the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report website athttp://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/ after the embargo lifts at 1:00 p.m. ET.
For more information on the National Immunization Survey (NIS), please visit:
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nis.htm 
CDC’s vaccine website for parents:
www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents
Provider Resources for Vaccine Conversations with Parents:
www.cdc.gov/vaccines/conversations

Less Sleep in Teen Years Tied to More Pounds at 21: MedlinePlus

Less Sleep in Teen Years Tied to More Pounds at 21: MedlinePlus

A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine
From the National Institutes of HealthNational Institutes of Health






Less Sleep in Teen Years Tied to More Pounds at 21

16-year-olds should get more than 8 hours of shuteye a night to help avoid obesity, research says
By Robert Preidt
Thursday, August 28, 2014
Related MedlinePlus Pages
THURSDAY, Aug. 28, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Lack of sleep not only puts teens at risk for poor grades, it also puts them at increased risk for obesity, researchers warn.
The study authors analyzed data collected from more than 10,000 Americans when they were aged 16 and 21. Nearly one-fifth of them got less than six hours of sleep a night when they were age 16, and this group was 20 percent more likely to be obese at age 21 than those who got more than eight hours of sleep per night at age 16, the investigators found.
Although lack of exercise and too much time spent watching television were also risk factors for obesity, these behaviors did not account for the link between lack of sleep and obesity, according to the study published online recently in the Journal of Pediatrics.
"Lack of sleep in your teenage years can stack the deck against you for obesity later in life. Once you're an obese adult, it is much harder to lose weight and keep it off. And the longer you are obese, the greater your risk for health problems like heart disease, diabetes, and cancer," study author Shakira Suglia, an assistant professor of epidemiology at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University in New York City, said in a university news release.
"The message for parents is to make sure their teenagers get more than eight hours a night. A good night's sleep does more than help them stay alert in school. It helps them grow into healthy adults," Suglia added.
Teens should get nine to 10 hours of sleep a night, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
It's known that daytime sleepiness and fatigue affect what and how people eat by triggering cravings and altering appetite. For example, sleep-deprived people find it easier to buy calorie-laden fast food rather than preparing a healthy meal.
SOURCE: Columbia University, news release, August 2014
HealthDay
More Health News on:
Obesity
Sleep Disorders
Teen Health