miércoles, 23 de julio de 2014

Media Availability: NIH-Supported Scientists Demonstrate Very Early Formation of SIV Reservoir

Media Availability: NIH-Supported Scientists Demonstrate Very Early Formation of SIV Reservoir



NIAID-Supported Scientists Demonstrate Very Early Formation of SIV Reservoir
NIAID-supported researchers report that SIV can become entrenched in monkey tissues fewer than 3 days after infection, before the virus is detectable in blood plasma or blood cells. The study findings indicate that very early antiretroviral therapy can have only a limited effect on preventing SIV reservoir formation. 

blog.aids.gov − President Obama Signs a New Executive Order to Protect LGBT Workers

blog.aids.gov − President Obama Signs a New Executive Order to Protect LGBT Workers



AIDS.gov Blog Update

AIDS.gov Blog for U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services.
This information has recently been updated, and is now available.
07/23/2014 02:37 PM EDT

“Many of you have worked for a long time to see this day coming.” Those were President Obama’s words to the audience in the East Room of the White House this morning, before he signed an Executive Order prohibiting federal contractors from discriminating on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. At the signing, the President...

blog.aids.gov − Harnessing the Potential of Social Media in HIV Prevention- Voices from AIDS 2014

blog.aids.gov − Harnessing the Potential of Social Media in HIV Prevention- Voices from AIDS 2014



AIDS.gov Blog Update

AIDS.gov Blog for U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services.
This information has recently been updated, and is now available.
07/23/2014 01:27 PM EDT

Earlier this week, our AIDS.gov team blogged about the lessons we’ve learned in the use of online video as part of our ongoing efforts to use social media in the fight against HIV and AIDS. Today, the fourth day of the 20th International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2014) in Melbourne, Australia, I had the opportunity to...

JAMA Network | JAMA | Sex Education in the 21st Century

JAMA Network | JAMA | Sex Education in the 21st Century



Sex Education in the 21st Century

Victor C. Strasburger, MD1; Sarah S. Brown, MSPH2
JAMA. 2014;312(2):125-126. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.4789.
Text Size: A A A
Controversies about the proper content of school-based sex education continue, but in some fundamental sense they have been matched by—perhaps even overtaken by—other pressing realities. For example, there are increasing demands that school resources be dedicated to teaching the basics of reading, writing, and math and to upgrading the attention given to science education. Many communities find that meeting these legitimate demands places substantial pressure on school hours and budgets, often at the expense of such areas as art and physical education as well as health education, which often includes sex education. Moreover, limited budgets can also decrease the amount of training made available to sex education teachers.

Transforming Teen Sex Education

Transforming Teen Sex Education

A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine
From the National Institutes of HealthNational Institutes of Health




Picture of Dr. Lindberg

NLM Director’s Comments Transcript
Transforming 

Teen Sex Education: 07/21/2014



close-up illustration of teen couple holding each other
Photo: Courtesy of the
National Library of Medicine.


Greetings from the National Library of Medicine and MedlinePlus.gov
Regards to all our listeners!
I'm Rob Logan, Ph.D. senior staff U.S. National Library of Medicine for Donald Lindberg, M.D, the Director of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
Here is what's new this week in MedlinePlus.listen
A decline in school sex education for teens paradoxically occurs at a time when new, tested programs that produce healthier outcomes as well as constructive Internet-based services are available, suggests a recent commentary in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
The commentary’s authors note health and sex education is declining in middle and high schools across the U.S. as limited resources are reallocated to support reading, writing, math, and science education.
While the authors support the latter investment, they note (and we quote) ‘these legitimate demands places substantial pressure on school hours and budgets, often at the expense of such areas as art and physical education as well as health education, which often includes sex education’ (end of quote). 
The authors add 46 percent of male and 33 percent of female teens now report they received zero instruction about contraception before they were sexually active. The authors explain Oklahoma and Alabama do not require sex education in schools despite the fact these states have among the highest rates of teen pregnancy in the nation.
The authors note the absence or decline of school sex education for teenagers is distressing because of the current availability of new, evidence-based (or tested) programs that reduce teen pregnancy, delay the start of adolescent sexual activities, and increase contraception among sexually active teens.
The authors, from the University of New Mexico, note the Office of Adolescent Health (within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) now lists 31 programs developed for schools with evidence of successful teen outcomes. Buoyed by evidence of recent success, the authors add the Office of Adolescent Health added a special Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program that is designed for use in school-based sex education programs.
In addition to research based programs within classroom instruction, the authors note there is a significant opportunity to develop sex education programs for teens on the Internet. The authors explain recent surveys suggest 85 percent of Australian teens report the Internet is the most common source of sex education information.
Rather than lament the sex education misinformation about sexual activity on the Internet, the authors write (and we quote): ‘professional oversight may help direct teens to reputable, accurate sites. In addition ‘good’ sexual content may help to drown out ‘bad’ sexual content… In any event, sex education should not miss out on the worldwide move to use online systems to improve health’ (end of quote).
The authors note some constructive, popular websites such as StayTeen.orgBedsider.orgGo Ask Alice, and Scarleteen, provide sex education information that is designed to be accurate, appealing, and relevant for teens.
The authors add the states of California, New Mexico, and North Carolina recently set up digital services where teens can text sex-related questions, which the authors find is more likely to attract teen audiences.
To improve existing efforts, the authors encourage the development of evidence-based websites that teach teens some of the key skills to reduce sexual risks, such as improving partner negotiating skills, and encouraging a strong sense of teen agency and self-efficacy.
The authors also encourage websites that are presented in the voice and tone of teens that additionally provide accurate, and well-researched sex education information. The authors imply where there are web-based efforts to provide sex education in teen voice, and websites that provide evidence-based constructive information, these assets rarely are combined.
The authors ask (and we quote): ‘why not encourage development of responsible, relevant sex information that would appeal to teens and be easy to use?’ (end of quote).
The authors note a combination of online materials and social media (and we quote) ‘could help fill in the gaps in sex education and support for many young people’ (end of quote).
Meanwhile, MedlinePlus.gov’s teen sexual health health topic page is designed to provide evidence-based sex educational information for teens as well as their parents, guardians, or advisors.
A sex education website especially designed for teens (from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists) is available in the ‘overviews’ section of MedlinePlus.gov’s teen sexual health health topic page. A website from the American Academy of Pediatrics about understanding teenage sexuality (that is more designed for parental and adult use) also is available in the ‘overviews’ section of MedlinePlus.gov’s teen sexual health health topic page.
 Another website from the American Academy of Pediatrics, that helps teens resist sexual pressure, also is available in the ‘related issues’ section of MedlinePlus.gov’s teen sexual health health topic page.
MedlinePlus.gov’s teen sexual health health topic page additionally provides links to the latest pertinent journal research articles, which are available in the ‘journal articles’ section. Links to clinical trials that may be occurring in your area are available in the ‘clinical trials’ section. You can sign up to receive updates about teen sexual health as they become available on MedlinePlus.gov.
To find MedlinePlus.gov’s teen sexual health health topic page type ‘teen sexual health’ in the search box on MedlinePlus.gov’s home page, then, click on ‘Teen sexual health (National Library of Medicine).’ MedlinePlus.gov also has a comprehensive health topic page on teenage pregnancy.
Before I go, this reminder… MedlinePlus.gov is authoritative. It's free. We do not accept advertising …and is written to help you.
To find MedlinePlus.gov, just type in 'MedlinePlus.gov' in any web browser, such as Firefox, Safari, Netscape, Chrome or Explorer. To find Mobile MedlinePlus.gov, just type 'Mobile MedlinePlus' in the same web browsers.
We encourage you to use MedlinePlus and please recommend it to your friends. MedlinePlus is available in English and Spanish. Some medical information is available in 43 other languages.
Your comments about this or any of our podcasts are always welcome. We welcome suggestions about future topics too!
Please email Dr. Lindberg anytime at: NLMDirector@nlm.nih.gov
That's NLMDirector (one word) @nlm.nih.gov
A written transcript of recent podcasts is available by typing 'Director's comments' in the search box on MedlinePlus.gov's home page.
The National Library of Medicine is one of 27 institutes and centers within the National Institutes of Health. The National Institutes of Health is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
A disclaimer — the information presented in this program should not replace the medical advice of your physician. You should not use this information to diagnose or treat any disease without first consulting with your physician or other health care provider.
It was nice to be with you. I look forward to meeting you here next week.

TCGA researchers identify four subtypes of stomach cancer

TCGA researchers identify four subtypes of stomach cancer



National Institutes of Health (NIH) - Turning Discovery Into Health



Institute/Center

Contact

NCI Press Office
301-496-6641
Embargoed for Release: Wednesday, July 23, 2014, 1 p.m. EDT

TCGA researchers identify four subtypes of stomach cancer

Stomach cancers fall into four distinct molecular subtypes researchers with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network have found. In the study, published online July 23, 2014, in Nature, the scientists report that this discovery could change how researchers think about developing treatments for stomach cancer, also called gastric cancers or gastric adenocarcinomas.
Instead of considering gastric cancer as a single disease, as has been done in the past, researchers will now be able to explore therapies in defined sets of patients whose tumors have specific genomic abnormalities. Stomach cancers are a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, resulting in an estimated 723,000 deaths annually.
Previous attempts to examine the clinical characteristics of gastric cancer were hindered by how differently cancer cells can look under a microscope, even when from the same tumor. The researchers hope that the new classification system will serve as a valuable adjunct to the current pathology classification system, which has two categories: diffuse and intestinal.
“A key advance with this project is that we have identified and developed a much more useful classification system to find groups of gastric cancer that have distinct molecular features, and at the same time, we also identified key targets to pursue in different groups of patients,” said Adam Bass, M.D., Harvard Medical School, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, the Broad Institute, Boston, and one of the lead investigators on the project. “This will provide a strong foundation for categorizing the disease and for doing so in a way in which we can develop clinical trials based on some of the critical molecular alterations that are driving different classes of cancers.”
The researchers identified the new subgroups through complex statistical analyses of molecular data from 295 tumors. They used six molecular analysis platforms including DNA sequencing, RNA sequencing, and protein arrays.
Tumors in the first group, which represented 9 percent of the tumors, were positive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and had several other molecular commonalities. Tumors in a second subgroup (22 percent of the tumors) had high microsatellite instability (MSI), which is the tendency for mutations to accumulate in repeated sequences of DNA. The remaining subgroups differed in the level of somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs), which can result from duplication or deletion of sections of the genome. The tumors in the third subgroup, which comprised 20 percent of the tumors, were considered to have a low level of SCNAs and were called genomically stable. The remaining 50 percent of tumors were classified as chromosomally unstable, with a high level of SCNAs.
The EBV-positive subgroup of tumors was of particular interest. EBV is best known in the United States as the cause of infectious mononucleosis, which is characterized by fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands, especially in the neck. EBV is also suspected of causing certain cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma and some types of lymphoma. Previous research had shown that EBV can be detected in a minority of gastric adenocarcinomas and that EBV genes are expressed in those tumors. However, this study found that the presence of EBV in gastric tumors is associated with a number of other molecular characteristics.
First, the researchers observed that EBV-positive tumors displayed a high frequency of mutations in the PIK3CA gene, which codes for a component of a protein, PI3-kinase, which is essential for cell growth and division and many other cellular activities that are important in cancer. Although 80 percent of EBV-positive tumors harbored a protein-changing alteration in PIK3CA, PIK3CA mutations were found in 3 percent to 42 percent of tumors of the other gastric cancer subtypes. The scientists suggested that EBV-positive tumors might respond to PI3-kinase inhibitors, some of which are in the early stages of testing in clinical trials but are not yet approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for general use.
Some tumors in the EBV-positive subgroup also showed more gene copies being produced in a chromosomal region that contains the JAK2 gene. The JAK2 protein facilitates cell growth and division, and the increased expression of JAK2 may inappropriately activate cell growth. The amplified region also contains the genes for two proteins, PD-L1 and PD-L2, which suppress immune responses; their increased expression may help tumors escape destruction by the immune system. The investigators suggested that these findings support the evaluation of JAK2 inhibitors and PD-L1/2 antagonists for the treatment of EBV-positive gastric cancers.
And the EBV-positive subgroup showed a far higher prevalence of DNA hypermethylation than any other cancer subtype reported by TCGA researchers. Methylation is the process of adding methyl groups to DNA, which reduces gene expression. Hypermethylation occurs when this mechanism continues aberrantly, quieting genes that should be active. In the EBV-positive tumor subgroup, hypermethylation was most often observed in the promoter regions of genes, which would prevent the expression of the genes.
"Gaining these insights into the connection between EBV and gastric cancer is the type of groundbreaking research that NIH is pleased to be a part of. We look forward to the potential clinical implications of this discovery," said NIH Director Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D. “This study reinforces the value of the approach we are using to study genomic diversity and similarity among tumors of many different cancer types,” said NCI Director Harold Varmus, M.D. “Only such a systematic analysis could have yielded observations about the association between EBV and several provocative molecular characteristics.”
Important insights also came from analyses of the three other gastric cancer subgroups. For example, tumors of the genomically stable subtype contained frequent mutations in a gene called RHOA, whose product interacts with other cellular proteins to help cells change shape and migrate, which may be important in tumor growth. This finding suggests possible targets for treating tumors of this subtype. And tumors of the chromosomal unstable subtype contained frequent amplifications of genes that encode receptor proteins on the outside of the cell, leading to the promotion of aberrant cell growth. Drugs are already available to curb the activity of some of these proteins.
“This most recent TCGA study again demonstrates the importance of its comprehensive design,” said NHGRI Director Eric Green, M.D., Ph.D. “These results give us important new genomic insights into a cause of a deadly form of cancer."
TCGA is jointly managed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), both parts of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), to comprehensively characterize the genomes of more than 30 types of cancer. The TCGA Research Network has generated data and published analyses on a number of cancers, all of which can be found on the TCGA website, http://www.cancergenome.nih.gov.
TCGA-generated data are freely available in advance of publication at the TCGA Data Portal, http://tcga-data.nci.nih.gov/tcga, and CGHub, https://cghub.ucsc.edu External Web Site Policy. The TCGA Research Network includes more than 150 researchers at dozens of institutions across the nation. A list of participants is available athttp://cancergenome.nih.gov/abouttcga/overview. More details about TCGA, including Quick Facts, Q&A, graphics, glossary, a brief guide to genomics and a media library of images can be found at http://cancergenome.nih.gov.
NCI leads the National Cancer Program and the NIH effort to dramatically reduce the burden of cancer and improve the lives of cancer patients and their families, through research into prevention and cancer biology, the development of new interventions, and the training and mentoring of new researchers. For more information about cancer, please visit the NCI website at http://www.cancer.gov or call NCI's Cancer Information Service at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237).
NHGRI is one of the 27 Institutes and Centers at the National Institutes of Health. The NHGRI Extramural Research Program supports grants for research and training and career development at sites nationwide. Additional information about NHGRI can be found at http://www.genome.gov.
NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit http://www.nih.gov.
About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation's medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visitwww.nih.gov.
NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health®

Reference

The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Gastric Adenocarcinoma. Nature. Online July 23, 2014. doi:10.1038/nature13480.

blog.aids.gov − NIH’s Dr. Carl Dieffenbach Shares Highlights from Wednesday at AIDS 2014

blog.aids.gov − NIH’s Dr. Carl Dieffenbach Shares Highlights from Wednesday at AIDS 2014



AIDS.gov Blog Update

AIDS.gov Blog for U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services.
This information has recently been updated, and is now available.
07/23/2014 11:38 AM EDT

p> At the conclusion of another science-filled day at the 20th International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2014) in Melbourne, Australia, we caught up again with Dr. Carl Dieffenbach from NIH/NIAID to hear about what he thought were highlights of the day. He pointed, first, to the address by former President Bill Clinton who spoke about the work of...