viernes, 6 de mayo de 2016

Treatment | ADHD | NCBDDD | CDC

Treatment | ADHD | NCBDDD | CDC



Treatment



My Child Has Been Diagnosed with ADHD - Now What?

When their child is diagnosed with ADHD, parents often have concerns about deciding the best way to help their child. It is important for parents to remember that ADHD can be successfully managed. There are many treatment options, so parents should work closely with everyone involved in the child's life—healthcare providers, therapists, teachers, coaches, and other family members. Taking advantage of all the resources available will help parents guide their child towards success.
This page provides you with information about treatment options for ADHD:
  • Behavior therapy, including training for parents
  • Medications
  • School accommodations and interventions
For children 6 years of age and older, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends both behavior therapy and medication as good options, preferably both together. For young children (under 6 years of age) with ADHD, behavior therapy is recommended as the first line of treatment, before medication is tried. Good treatment plans will include close monitoring of whether and how much the treatment helps the child’s behavior, and making changes as needed along the way. To learn more about the AAP recommendations for treatment of children with ADHD, visit the Recommendations page.

Behavior Therapy, Including Training for Parents

What is behavior therapy?
Research shows that behavior therapy is an important part of treatment for children with ADHD. ADHD affects not only a child’s ability to pay attention or sit still at school, it also affects relationships with family and other children.  Children with ADHD often show behaviors that can be very disruptive to others. Behavior therapy is a treatment option that can help reduce these behaviors. It is often helpful to start behavior therapy as soon as a diagnosis is made.
The goals of behavior therapy are to learn or strengthen positive behaviors and eliminate unwanted or problem behaviors. Behavior therapy can include behavior therapy training for parents, behavior therapy with children, or a combination. Teachers can also use behavior therapy to help reduce problem behaviors in the classroom.
  • In parent training in behavior therapy, parents learn new skills or strengthen their existing skills to teach and guide their children and to manage their behavior. Parent training in behavior therapy has been shown to strengthen the relationship between the parent and child, and to decrease children’s negative or problem behaviors. Parent training in behavior therapy is also known as behavior management training for parents, parent behavior therapy, behavioral parent training, or just parent training.
  • In behavior therapy with children, the therapist works with the child to learn new behaviors to replace behaviors that don’t work or cause problems. The therapist may also help the child learn to express feelings in ways that do not create problems for the child or other people.
Behavior therapy for young children: Training for parents

Did you know?

Parent Training in Behavior Therapy is also known as Behavior Management Training for ParentsParent Behavior Therapy, Behavioral Parent Training, or just Parent Training
The 2011 clinical practice guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend that doctors prescribe behavior therapy as the first line of treatment for preschool-aged children (4–5 years of age) with ADHD.  Parent training in behavior therapy has the most evidence of being effective, but teachers and early childhood caregivers can use behavior therapy in the classroom as well.
Why should parents try behavior therapy first, before medication?
Behavior therapy is an important first step because:
  • Behavior therapy gives parents the skills and strategies to help their child.
  • Behavior therapy has been shown to work as well as medication for ADHD in young children.
  • Young children have more side effects from ADHD medications than older children.
  • The long-term effects of ADHD medications on young children have not been well-studied.
 Only 1 in 2 young children with ADHD received psychological services that may include behavior therapy.
The Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) conducted a review in 2010 of all existing studies on treatment options for children younger than 6 years of age. The review found enough evidence to recommend parent training in behavior therapy as a good treatment option for children under 6 with ADHD symptoms and for disruptive behavior, in general.
The review also identified four programs for parents of young children with ADHD that reduced symptoms and problem behaviors related to ADHD:
More recently, another intervention, Helping the Non-Compliant Child, was shown to be effective for young children with ADHD1.  Other programs that help parents strengthen parent-child relationships and manage negative behavior with positive discipline may also be effective. 
Behavior therapy for school-age children and adolescents
For children over the age of 6, behavior therapy is an important part of treatment. The AAP recommends behavior therapy together with medication. The type of therapy that is effective for young children, parent training in behavior therapy, may also be effective for children with disruptive behavior through age 12.3  
Research evidence points to the effectiveness of several types of behavior therapies for older children:
  • Parent training in behavior therapy
  • Classroom behavior management
  • Peer interventions that focus on behavior
  • Organizational skills training
  • Combinations of behavior treatments

Medications

New Data: Medication and Psychological Services Among Children Ages 2-5 Years with ADHD (Healthcare Claims Data)  
Medicaid policies to manage the use of ADHD medications: Information by state  
Medication can help children with ADHD in their everyday life, and medication treatment may be an effective way to manage ADHD symptoms. Medication is an option that may help control some of the behavior problems that have led to trouble in the past with family, friends and at school.
Several different types of medications are FDA-approved to treat ADHD in children:
  • Stimulants are the best-known and most widely used ADHD medications. Between 70-80 percent of children with ADHD have fewer ADHD symptoms when they take these fast-acting medications.
  • Nonstimulants were approved for treating ADHD in 2003.  Nonstimulants do not work as quickly as stimulants, but they can last up to 24 hours.
  • Medications can affect children differently. One child may respond well to one medication, but not another. The doctor may need to try different medications and doses, so it is important for parents to work with their child’s doctor to find the medication that works best for their child.
For more information on treatments, please click one of the following links:

Parent Education and Support

CDC funds the National Resource Center on ADHD (NRC), a program of Children and Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD) The NRC provides resources, information, and advice for parents on how to help their child.  Learn more about their services here.  CHADD offers educational programs to help parents and individuals with ADHD navigate the challenges of ADHD across the lifespan. Find more information about CHADD's "Parent to Parent" program by visiting CHADD's website.

ADHD and the Classroom

Parents excited about their child's school report
The symptoms of ADHD, inability to pay attention, difficulty sitting still, difficulty controlling impulses, can make it particularly hard for children with ADHD to do well in school. It is important for teachers to have the needed skills to help children manage their ADHD. However, since the majority of children with ADHD are not enrolled in special education classes, their teachers will most likely be regular education teachers who might know very little about ADHD and could benefit from assistance and guidance.  The National Resource Center on ADHD provides information for teachers on how to help students with ADHD.
Here are some tips to share with teachers for classroom success:
  • Make assignments clear – check with the student to see if they understood what they need to do
  • Give positive reinforcement and attention to positive behavior
  • Make sure assignments are not long and repetitive. Shorter assignments that provide a little challenge without being too hard are best.  
  • Allow time for movement and exercise
  • Communicate with parents on a regular basis
  • Use a homework folder to limit the number of things the child has to track
  • Be sensitive to self-esteem issues
  • Minimize distractions in the classroom
  • Involve the school counselor or psychologist

What Every Parent Should Know...

Children with ADHD might be eligible for special services or accommodations at school under the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA) and an anti-discrimination law known as Section 504. Click here to learn more from the U.S. Department of Education about the rights of eligible children with ADHD under IDEA and Section 504.
Healthcare providers can play an important part in collaborating with schools to help the child get the special services they need. Read more about the role of healthcare providers in assisting children with special needs.

Tips for Parents

Following are examples that might help with your child’s behavior:
  • Create a routine. Try to follow the same schedule every day, from wake-up time to bedtime.
  • Get organized. Encourage your child to put schoolbags, clothing, and toys in the same place every day so your child will be less likely to lose them.
  • Manage distractions. Turn off the TV, limit noise, and provide a clean workspace when your child is doing homework. Some children with ADHD learn well if they are moving, or listening to background music. Watch your child and see what works.
  • Limit choices. Offer choices between a few things so that your child doesn’t get overwhelmed and overstimulated. For example, offer choices between a few options, such as this outfit or that one, this meal or that one, or this toy or that one.
  • Be clear and specific when you talk with your child. Let your child know you are listening by describing what you heard them say. Use clear, brief directions when they need to do something.
  • Help your child plan. Break down complicated tasks into simpler, shorter steps. For long tasks, starting early and taking breaks may help limit stress.
  • Use goals and praise or other rewards. Use a chart to list goals and track positive behaviors, then let your child know they have done well by telling your child or rewarding efforts in other ways. Be sure the goals are realistic—baby steps are important!
  • Discipline effectively. Instead of yelling or spanking, use timeouts or removal of privileges as consequences for inappropriate behavior.
  • Create positive opportunities.   Children with ADHD may find certain situations stressful. Finding out and encouraging what your child does well — whether it's school, sports, art, music, or play — can help create positive experiences.
  • Provide a healthy lifestyle. Nutritious food, lots of physical activity, and sufficient sleep are important; they can help keep ADHD symptoms from getting worse.

ADHD in Adults

ADHD lasts into adulthood for at least one-third of children with ADHD2. For more information about diagnosis and treatment throughout the lifespan, please visit the websites of the National Resource Center on ADHD and the National Institutes of Mental Health.

References:

  1. Abikoff, H.B., Thompson, M., Laver-Bradbury, C., Long, N., Forehand, R. L., Miller Brotman, L., et al. (2015). Parent training for preschool ADHD: a randomized controlled trial of specialized and generic programs. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56, 618-31.
  2. Barbaresi, W. J., Colligan, R. C., Weaver, A. L., Voigt, R. G., Killian, J. M., & Katusic, S. K. (2013). Mortality, ADHD, and psychosocial adversity in adults with childhood ADHD: a prospective study. Pediatrics, 131(4), 637-644.
  3. McCart, M. R., Priester, P. E., Davies, W. H., & Azen, R. (2006). Differential effectiveness of behavioral parent-training and cognitive-behavioral therapy for antisocial youth: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34, 527-543. doi:10.1007/s10802-006-9031-1

Smoking in Pregnancy: A Possible Risk for ADHD | Features | CDC

Smoking in Pregnancy: A Possible Risk for ADHD | Features | CDC





Smoking in Pregnancy: A Possible Risk for ADHD

Pregnant woman with young daughter

Learn and share during ADHD Awareness Month.
ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood. About 1 in 10 children 4-17 years of age in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD, based on parent reports. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is working to understand the risk factors for ADHD, including smoking during pregnancy, so that more can be done to prevent the disorder.

ADHD and Smoking in Pregnancy

The year 2014 marked the 50th anniversary of the first Surgeon General's report on the risks associated with smoking. For the 2014 report, researchers at CDC reviewed the evidence for any associations between prenatal smoking and a set of specific neurobehavioral disorders of childhood, including ADHD, but also oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), anxiety disorders, depression, Tourette syndrome (TS), schizophrenia, and intellectual disability (ID).
The evidence reviewed suggests that:
  • prenatal exposure to smoking is associated with disruptive behavioral disorders in children, including ADHD, ODD, and CD;
  • the ways that prenatal exposure to smoking is linked to these behavioral outcomes is not yet understood;
  • there is limited data and the results were mixed for the relationship between prenatal exposure to smoking and other neurobehavioral disorders (anxiety disorders, depression, TS, schizophrenia, and ID).
Woman breaking cigarette in two
Prenatal exposure to smoking is associated with disruptive behavioral disorders in children.
We know that there is a link, but we do not yet know how smoking during pregnancy is related to ADHD in childhood. Many of the studies relied on retrospective reports of smoking and many studies had small sample sizes, especially for less common conditions such as TS and schizophrenia. There are also many other risks that are often present along with maternal smoking that might explain the link with neurobehavioral disorders. Thus, more research studies are necessary to determine how prenatal exposure to smoking is related to developmental outcomes in children.
The new evidence adds to the concerns about the negative effects of smoking that were already included in the previous Surgeon General's reports. In addition to the well-known risks to the health of the person who is smoking, there was consistent evidence that the toxins in tobacco from maternal smoking have negative effects on reproductive and developmental outcomes, for example, premature birth which can lead to death, disability, and disease among newborns.
You can read the entire 2014 Surgeon General's Report here.

What can healthcare providers do?

There are many risks from smoking before and during pregnancy, so it is especially important that women do not smoke during their reproductive years. CDC has gathered many resources that healthcare providers can use to help women quit smoking before or during pregnancy. You can also learn more about the public health approachthat CDC is using to eliminate tobacco use and exposure during the reproductive years.

What can you do if you are concerned about smoking and pregnancy?

Quitting smoking can be hard, but it is one of the best ways a woman can protect herself and her baby's health. For support with quitting, including free quit coaching, a free quit plan, free educational materials, and referrals to local resources, please call 1-800-QUIT-NOW (1-800-784-8669); TTY 1-800-332-8615.
Logo: October is ADHD Awareness Month
October is ADHD Awareness Month.

What is ADHD?

Many children have trouble focusing and behaving at one time or another. These symptoms may reach the level of a disorder if they continue over time and cause difficulty at school, at home, or with friends. ADHD may put a child at risk for other concerns and conditions. The impact of ADHD can continue into adulthood.
Children with ADHD:
  • often have other behavioral disorders
  • may have problems making or keeping friends
  • may show risky behavior that can lead to injury
  • may have problems succeeding in school

What is CDC doing about ADHD?

CDC is gathering information about ADHD and how it impacts children and families, so that we can do more about prevention and treatment. Currently, research studies are underway to:
  • understand the number of children with ADHD and how they are being treated; (read more about our diagnosis and treatment studies)
  • follow children with symptoms of ADHD over time, to learn about changes in the symptoms and their effects and changes in treatment; (read more about PLAY, CDC's community based study here) gather information about children's mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, including ADHD, from multiple sites around the US; (read more about the PLAY-Mental Health study); and
  • gather evidence on factors that increase the likelihood that a child will develop ADHD.

How US children are diagnosed | Key Findings | NCBDDD | CDC

How US children are diagnosed | Key Findings | NCBDDD | CDC





A new report describing how US children are diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder



Boy in a doctor's office facing backwards in his chair



CDC researchers have published a National Health Statistics Report, Diagnostic Experiences of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. It is the first national study presenting greater detail on how ADHD diagnoses take place among a representative sample of children who have ADHD, as described by their parents. Findings from this report can be compared to American Academy of Pediatrics’ (AAP) clinical practice guidelines for ADHD, which recommend using standardized rating scales to diagnose ADHD and information from multiple sources (parents, teachers, other family members, etc.).
CDC researchers found from parent reports that about half of children were diagnosed by a primary care physician, behavior rating scales were used for 9 in 10 children to assess for ADHD, and about 8 in 10 diagnoses incorporated information from an adult other than a family member.
This is important information for healthcare providers, public health officials, and researchers who seek to determine how closely current practice matches with best practice for diagnosing ADHD. These findings provide new information on who is diagnosing ADHD and describes some of the features of those initial diagnostic visits. The estimates suggest that physicians who diagnose ADHD are largely using two recommended practices—behavior rating scales and incorporating feedback from adults other than family members—in their diagnosis of ADHD in children. This information will also inform future efforts to make sure that the diagnosis of ADHD reflects best practice recommendations.

Main Findings

Based on the parent’s report about their child’s ADHD diagnosis
  • About three-quarters of children with ADHD were diagnosed before age 9 and one-third of those by age 6;
  • A family member (which can include a parent) was usually the one first concerned about a child’s behavior, than someone from the child’s school or daycare;
  • A primary care physician (usually a pediatrician) first made the diagnosis for about half of the children;
  • Children with ADHD first diagnosed by a psychiatrist were more likely to be under 6 years of age than older;
  • Children with ADHD first diagnosed by a psychologist were more likely to be older than 6 years of age than under 6;
  • Healthcare providers nearly always had a conversation with a parent about their child’s behavior;
  • Healthcare providers used behavior rating scales or checklists to assess 9 in 10 children for ADHD; and
  • An adult outside of the family was usually involved in the diagnostic process.

About this Study

Researchers used data from the 2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome (NS-DATA)--a follow-up survey of the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH). The NSCH examined health and well-being among children in the United States. The NS-DATA survey was conducted in 2014 to collect additional information about the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD and/or Tourette syndrome (TS) from parents who had previously reported that their child had ADHD or TS. Parents were asked whether they had ever been told that their child had ADHD and at what age; the type of healthcare professional who made the diagnosis; the first person who was concerned about the child’s behavior; the methods used to assess for ADHD; and whether information was sought from other individuals about the child and from whom (e.g. teachers, coaches, childcare providers, other family members etc.).

CDC’s work on ADHD

One way that CDC monitors the number of children who have been diagnosed with ADHD is through the use of national survey data. Questions about ADHD on national or regional surveys are used to learn more about the number of children with ADHD, their use of ADHD treatments, and the impact of ADHD on children and their families.
CDC also conducts community-based studies to better understand the impact of ADHD and other mental and behavioral health conditions on children and families living with these conditions. The Project to Learn about Youth - Mental Health (PLAY-MH) has been implemented in four community sites to help us better understand ADHD, Tourette syndrome, and other mental and behavioral disorders, as well as the needs of children and families affected by these conditions.
CDC supports the National Resource Center on ADHD, a program of Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD), which is a Public Health Practice and Resource Center. Their web site (http://www.help4adhd.org/) has information based on the best and most current medical evidence about the care for people with ADHD and their families. The National Resource Center operates a call center with trained staff to answer questions about ADHD. Their phone number is 1-800-233-4050.

More Information

Key Findings Reference

Visser, S.N., Zablotsky, B., Holbrook, J.R., Danielson, M.L., & Bitsko, R.H. (2015). Diagnostic experiences of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. National Health Statistics Report, 81, 1-7.

Behavior Therapy First for Young Children with ADHD | Features | CDC

Behavior Therapy First for Young Children with ADHD | Features | CDC





Behavior Therapy First for Young Children with ADHD

Children painting



October is Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) awareness month. Did you know that many children with severe symptoms of ADHD are diagnosed before 6 years of age? Young children with ADHD need the right treatment for ADHD. Learn about using behavior therapy first to help young children with ADHD.
ADHD is one of the most common enduring conditions of childhood and affects many children, including very young children. Those with more severe symptoms are often diagnosed earlier. Read about trends in diagnosis and medication treatment for ADHD.
Being easily distracted, impulsive, and highly active is normal for young children, but when the symptoms are severe and persistent, it can cause problems. Young children with ADHD are more likely than those without ADHD to have difficulties in daycare or school, including problems with peer relationships, learning, and a higher risk of injuries.

My Young Child has been Diagnosed with ADHD, Now What?

For older children, the best treatment is often a combination of behavior therapy and medication. But for children under 6 years of age, experts recommend that ADHD be treated with behavior therapy first, before trying medication. Behavior therapy is the recommended treatment for ADHD in children under 6. The type of behavior therapy that is most effective for this age is parent training in behavior therapy, meaning that therapists work with parents and teach them the skills needed to help their child better manage their ADHD.
Logo: ADHD Awareness Month is October 2015. Get the facts. ADHD can affect anyone.
Young children with ADHD are more likely than those without ADHD to have difficulties in daycare or school, including problems with peer relationships, learning, and a higher risk of injuries.

How Can Parent Training in Behavior Therapy Help my Child?

Children who have ADHD act in ways that are often challenging for parents. Children may forget things they are told, be overly active, and act before thinking. They might not be able to get positive attention the way that other children can; they tend to misbehave and might be punished more frequently than other children. Even if children with ADHD really try to follow rules, they might not be able to. This can have a negative impact on their self-image, and cause them to give up trying or to act up more often.
A therapist skilled in behavior management can help parents understand how ADHD affects their child. Parent training in behavior therapy is used to help change problem behaviors by building parenting skills, improving the relationship between parents and their child with ADHD, and helping children manage their own behaviors.
Others (daycare providers, preschool teachers, and other caretakers) can also help to manage the behavior of preschoolers who have ADHD by becoming educated about the disorder and by being trained in behavioral techniques.

The Recommended First Choice

Behavior therapy is the recommended ADHD treatment for children under 6 and should be used first, before medications that treat ADHD.
  • Children under 6 are more likely than older children to experience side effects from ADHD medications, such as increased heart rate and blood pressure, trouble sleeping, loss of appetite, and a loss of energy.
  • The long-term effects of ADHD medications on children under 6 are not known since ADHD medications have not been well-studied in young children.
  • Behavior therapy works as well as medication in young children with ADHD in helping to manage symptoms. Studies have shown that families who receive  training in behavior therapy notice improvements for several years after treatment.
Parent training in behavior therapy has evidence as an effective treatment. There are several programs that meet the criteria of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality for effective treatments. Read more about these behavior therapy training programs for parents of young children here.

What is CDC Doing?

CDC works to help families get the right care, at the right time. The data available so far show that almost half of 4-5 year olds with ADHD did not get behavior therapy in 2009-2010.
  • CDC is working with states and partner agencies to increase awareness as well as to identify best practices in support of behavior therapy for ADHD.
  • CDC is using national surveys to understand how many children have ADHD and how they are treated.
  • CDC is learning more about how children with ADHD are diagnosed.
  • CDC funds the National Resource Center on ADHD to provide evidence-based information about ADHD to families and professionals.

What You Can Do:

  • To get the recommended treatment for your young child with ADHD, talk to your doctor about behavioral therapy first. Learn more by visiting theNational Resource Center on ADHD's webpage on preschoolers or by calling 1-800-233-4050.
  • Share your experience on behavioral therapy with other families.

Key Findings: ADHD and Psychiatric Comorbidity among a School=Based Sample of Children | ADHD | NCBDDD | CDC

Key Findings: ADHD and Psychiatric Comorbidity among a School=Based Sample of Children | ADHD | NCBDDD | CDC







Key Findings: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Psychiatric Comorbidity: Functional Outcomes in a School-Based Sample of Children



Share with Your Friends

Kids with ADHD and other conditions more likely to get in trouble with friends, school, and police. Kids with ADHD and other conditions may need additional help beyond care for ADHD.


The Journal of Attention Disorders has published a new study, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Psychiatric Comorbidity: Functional Outcomes in a School-Based Sample of Children. This study looked at the number of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who also have another mental disorder, and it also reported the impact that these disorders had on affected children.
Researchers from the CDC, the University of Florida-Jacksonville, and the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center found thatmore than half of children with ADHD also had another mental disorder, and these children were more likely to have other problems, such as struggling with friendships and getting into trouble in school or with the police.
This study can help physicians understand the needs of children with ADHD and inform the care plans developed for these children.

Main Findings

Using data from the Project to Learn about ADHD in Youth (PLAY), the researchers found clear patterns of co-occurring conditions:
  • Children with ADHD were more than twice as likely as children without ADHD to have another mental disorder.
  • More than half of children (60%) with ADHD had another mental disorder (blue vertical bar for children with ADHD in the chart), most often conduct disorder (CD) or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).
  • One in four children (25%) with ADHD had two or more other mental disorders (red vertical bar for children with ADHD in the chart).

Chart showing the percentage of children with and without ADHD who have another mental disorder - 60% with ADHD had one or more other disorders compared to 17% without ADHD. 27% with ADHD had two or more other disorders compared to 6% without ADHD.
The researchers also found that children with ADHD, CD, or ODD often had more difficulties in school, problems with making and keeping friends, and getting in trouble with the police: (see chart below)
  • Children with ADHD often had trouble with police, or were suspended or expelled from school.
  • Children with ADHD and CD and/or ODD were the most likely to have difficulties in school, problems with friendships, and get in trouble with the police (green vertical bars in the chart).
Chart showing the percentage of children with certain problems, by disorder group - Comparing No disorder, ADHD alone, and ADHD and CD or ODD. Below average school performance: 19, 55, and 55%, respectively. Held back in school: 10, 19, 27%, respectively. Trouble with police or suspended or expelled from school: 12, 36, 60%, respectively. Difficulty making and keeping friends: 15, 27, 43%, respectively.

What This Study Means

Physicians can use this information to understand the needs of children with ADHD and inform the care plans developed for these children.
  • Most children with ADHD may benefit from treatments beyond those specifically for ADHD.
  • Children with ADHD and another mental disorder could benefit from interventions that prevent dropping out of school and criminal activity.
  • Physicians can use this information to understand the needs of children with ADHD and inform the care plans developed for these children.

About this Study

PLAY is a population-based project that screens schoolchildren for mental and behavioral problems and then invites some of these children in for a diagnostic evaluation. The goal of this project is to learn more about children with ADHD, the, causes, co-occurring conditions, factors that increase the risk for having ADHD, and treatment of ADHD among school-aged children. Two PLAY study sites followed children from elementary school (age 5-13 years) through adolescence (up to age 19) to investigate the short- and long-term outcomes of children with ADHD. These studies provide information on ADHD symptoms and diagnosis, and track children’s development over time. Using a community-based approach (for example, screening and recruiting children and their parents from schools) makes it possible to find children who are likely to have ADHD, but have not yet been diagnosed with the condition. The approach also helps us learn more about the development of children with ADHD over time.

CDC’s Work on ADHD

CDC works to improve our understanding of ADHD and co-occurring conditions. The information learned will help us understand the factors that increase the risk for ADHD, the causes, and the best treatments, and assist us in developing resources to help children living with ADHD and their families.
Tracking: CDC monitors the number of children who have been diagnosed with ADHD through the use of national survey data.
Research: CDC conducts community-based studies to better understand the impact of ADHD and other mental and behavioral health conditions on children living with these conditions and their families.
Health Promotion: CDC supports the National Resource Center on ADHD, a program of Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD). Their web site (http://www.help4adhd.org/) has information based on the best and most current medical evidence about the care for people with ADHD and their families. The National Resource Center operates a call center with trained staff to answer questions about ADHD. Their phone number is 1-800-233-4050.

More Information

Key Findings Reference

Cuffe, S.P., Visser, S.N., Holbrook, J.R., Danielson, M.L., Greryk L.L., Wolraich, M.L., McKeown R.E. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Psychiatric Comorbidity: Functional Outcomes in a School-Based Sample of Children. Journal of Attention Disorders. Published online before print, November 25, 2015, doi: 10.1177/1087054715613437