domingo, 14 de septiembre de 2014

Weight-loss myths, ADHD, tracking Ebola, physical activity and mobility, and more

Weight-loss myths, ADHD, tracking Ebola, physical activity and mobility, and more

NIH Health Information



Person holding a tape measure around their waist.









Weight-loss and Nutrition Myths

Find out how to separate facts from myths and get tips about weight loss, nutrition, and physical activity. (From NIH’s National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases)

4 boys sitting together on a playground.









Focusing on ADHD 

Some kids have trouble paying attention, staying focused, and finishing tasks to a point that interferes with their schoolwork and home life. Learn how to manage ADHD. (From NIH News in Health)

Microscopic image of Ebola virus particles budding from an infected cell.











The Path of Ebola

New genomic data reveal clues about the origin of the Ebola virus and provide insights that may lead to effective therapies and vaccines. (From the NIH Director’s Blog)

Senior couple walking along the street together.











Physical Activity Program Helps Maintain Mobility

A carefully structured, moderate physical activity program helped vulnerable older people maintain their mobility. The study shows that exercise can benefit even many frail older people. (From NIH Research Matters)

Mother and newborn baby sleeping.









Popular NIH Health Topics

"Did You Know?" - September 12, 2014

Did You Know?
Vital Signs: Sodium Intake Among U.S. School-Aged Children — 2009–2010
children eating popcorn
http://www.cdc.gov/salt/pdfs/children_sodium.pdf

Reducing Sodium in Children's Diets | Vital Signs

Medications Plus Parent Training May Help Kids With Aggression, ADHD: MedlinePlus

Medications Plus Parent Training May Help Kids With Aggression, ADHD: MedlinePlus

A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine
From the National Institutes of HealthNational Institutes of Health






Medications Plus Parent Training May Help Kids With Aggression, ADHD

Combination treatment seems to reduce anger and violent tendencies, study finds
Thursday, September 11, 2014
HealthDay news image
THURSDAY, Sept. 11, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Combining two medications with parent training appears to improve anger, irritability and violent tendencies in children whose attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is coupled with severe aggression, a new study suggests.
"Augmented" therapy that consists of stimulant and antipsychotic drugs, along with parent training in behavioral management techniques, was rated more effective by parents than "basic" therapy pairing only the stimulant and parent training, researchers found.
"An important finding of this study was that at the end of nine weeks, approximately half of all children receiving basic therapy were still rated by their parents as being impaired... with symptoms interfering with school or social functioning," said study author Kenneth Gadow, a professor of psychiatry at Stony Brook University in New York.
"In the augmented group receiving three interventions for aggression, about one-quarter still, at the end of nine weeks, were rated by their parents as being impaired," he added. "And that suggests, even with highly effective therapies, that many of these children still have unmet treatment needs."
The drugs used in the study, published in the September issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, included the widely prescribed ADHD stimulant Concerta (methylphenidate) and the antipsychotic Risperdal (risperidone).
Approximately 11 percent of American children aged 4 to 17 have been diagnosed with ADHD, which includes symptoms such as impulsivity, hyperactivity, and difficulty focusing and controlling behavior, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
As many as half of children with ADHD also display significant, disruptive aggression, according to an editorial accompanying the new research.
"This is very common among kids with ADHD, but unfortunately it complicates the picture for treatment," said Erin Schoenfelder, a clinical psychologist at Seattle Children's Hospital and assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioral health at University of Washington. "It really is staggeringly high."
In the new research, Gadow and his colleagues divided a group of nearly 170 children aged 6 to 12 with ADHD and aggression problems into two treatment groups -- basic and augmented. The basic group received Concerta and their parents underwent behavioral management training.
The augmented group received Concerta and parental training as well, but also took the antipsychotic Risperdal. Both groups were followed for nine weeks.
While both groups of children displayed marked reduction in symptoms, improvement ratings varied depending on whether parents or teachers were making the assessment. Parents reported that children on augmented therapy were less likely to be impaired socially or academically by their anger and irritability than children on basic therapy. On the other hand, teachers found few differences in these measures.
Instead, teachers of those on augmented therapy reported significant drops in ADHD symptoms, especially impulsivity, compared with teachers of children on basic therapy.
Gadow and Schoenfelder agreed that the conflicting parent-teacher ratings demonstrate a familiar concept: that children's behaviors vary in different settings, whether or not they have ADHD.
"Just like adults, they adapt their behaviors to be more appropriate for the setting they're in," Gadow said. "People do differ, however, in their ability to modify their behavior from one setting to the next, and some children are much more variable [in this regard]."
Schoenfelder said long-term evidence is needed indicating that combining Concerta and Risperdal is safe in children, but "it appears from this study that the combination was well-tolerated and something practitioners could [adjust the dosage of] effectively."
"Folks trying this type of treatment should have close monitoring," she added. "This is a starting point. It's a combination doctors may try when they see this blend of aggressive and hyperactive behaviors. It certainly will require adjustment . . . but it's exciting to find something helpful for a significant proportion of the kids studied."
The study authors pointed out that their findings only apply to children with ADHD who exhibit severe irritability and aggression. They noted that the study's findings are not generalizable for the ADHD population as a whole.
SOURCES: Kenneth Gadow, Ph.D., professor, psychiatry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, N.Y.; Erin Schoenfelder, Ph.D., assistant professor, psychiatry and behavioral health, department of psychiatry, University of Washington, and clinical psychologist, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle; September 2014,Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
HealthDay
More Health News on:
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Child Behavior Disorders
Medicines and Children

Sleep and Work Absence: MedlinePlus Health News Video

Sleep and Work Absence: MedlinePlus Health News Video

A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine
From the National Institutes of HealthNational Institutes of Health


09/12/2014 10:03 AM EDT


Source: HealthDay - Video
Related MedlinePlus Pages: Occupational HealthSleep Disorders

Scientists Unlock a Key to Cell Stress: MedlinePlus

Scientists Unlock a Key to Cell Stress: MedlinePlus

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From the National Institutes of HealthNational Institutes of Health






Scientists Unlock a Key to Cell Stress

Stressed cells can halt protein production, which could could shed light on diseases like Alzheimer's and ALS
By Mary Elizabeth Dallas
Thursday, September 11, 2014
HealthDay news image
THURSDAY, Sept. 11, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A team of researchers has uncovered a key way that cells respond to stress.
As they explain it, cells produce more than 25,000 different proteins with specific 3-D shapes, but when stressed, they can make mistakes and produce misshapen proteins that are unfolded or misfolded.
Duke University researchers found, however, that cells are able to recognize this build-up of misshapen proteins and respond by temporarily slowing down production or shutting it off entirely.
The researchers suggested that their findings, published Sept. 11 in the journal Cell, could help scientists gain a better understanding of diseases like Alzheimer's, Lou Gehrig's disease (ALS), Huntington's, Parkinson's and type 2 diabetes, which involve the accumulation of misfolded proteins.
"We have identified an entirely new mechanism for how the cell responds to stress," study author Christopher V. Nicchitta, a professor of cell biology at Duke University School of Medicine, said in a university news release. "Essentially, the cell remodels the organization of its protein production machinery in order to compartmentalize the tasks at hand."
Cells work like a factory, making protein on a production line: each cell has a DNA blueprint, which is first transcribed into messenger RNA or mRNA, which then travels to the outer part of the cell and is translated into proteins.
When a cell gets stressed from overheating or starvation, however, its proteins do not fold properly. These unfolded proteins trigger an alarm that causes the cell to slow down its production line and clean up the misshapen proteins. This reaction is known as the unfolded protein response, the researchers explained.
"You can slow down protein production, but sometimes slowing down the workflow is not enough," explained Nicchitta. "You can activate genes to help chew up the misfolded proteins, but sometimes they are accumulating too quickly. Here we have discovered a mechanism that does one better -- it effectively puts everything on hold. Once things get back to normal, the mRNAs are released from the holding pattern."
Nicchitta said he was now looking for the factors that determine which mechanism cells employ during a stress response.
SOURCE: Duke University, news release, Sept. 11, 2014
HealthDay

Aggressive People May Process Violence's Impact Differently: MedlinePlus

Aggressive People May Process Violence's Impact Differently: MedlinePlus

A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine
From the National Institutes of HealthNational Institutes of Health






Aggressive People May Process Violence's Impact Differently

Brain scans revealed varying effects of watching hostile actions in the media
By Mary Elizabeth Dallas
Thursday, September 11, 2014
THURSDAY, Sept. 11, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- People's response to violence in the media depends on how aggressive they are naturally, a new study contends.
"How an individual responds to their environment depends on the brain of the beholder," lead investigator Nelly Alia-Klein, associate professor of neuroscience and psychiatry at the Friedman Brain Institute and Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City, said in a Mount Sinai news release.
The findings may help those designing programs that seek to reduce aggressive behavior starting in childhood, she said.
"Aggression is a trait that develops together with the nervous system over time starting from childhood; patterns of behavior become solidified and the nervous system prepares to continue the behavior patterns into adulthood when they become increasingly coached in personality," she added.
This could explain differences in people who are aggressive and not aggressive, and how media motivates them to do certain things, Alia-Klein said. "Hopefully, these results will give educators an opportunity to identify children with aggressive traits and teach them to be more aware of how aggressive material activates them specifically," she said.
The study, published Sept. 10 in the journal PLoS One, involved 54 men who answered a questionnaire. Based on their responses, they were split into two groups: those with aggressive traits (including a history of physical assault) and those without aggressive tendencies.
On the first day of the study, the men's brains were scanned as they watched a series of violent scenes, such as shootings and street fights. Specifically, the researchers measured their brain metabolic activity, a marker of brain function. The men also had their blood pressure taken every five minutes, and were asked how they were feeling every 15 minutes.
The next day, the brain scans were repeated as the men watched nonviolent but emotional scenes, such as people responding to a natural disaster. On day three, the men's brains were scanned but they didn't watch anything.
"Our aim was to investigate what is going on in the brains of people when they watch violent movies," said Alia-Klein. "We hypothesized that if people have aggressive traits to begin with, they will process violent media in a very different way as compared to nonaggressive people, a theory supported by these findings."
The study revealed that when the men were not watching anything, those with aggressive traits had unusually high brain activity in parts of their brain that are not known to be active when a person is not engaged in an activity of some kind.
While watching the violent scenes, however, the men in the aggressive group had less brain activity than the nonaggressive group in their orbitofrontal cortex, the part of the brain associated with emotion-related decision making and self-control.
The authors concluded these men have a different brain function map than the nonaggressive participants.
The men in the aggressive group also reported feeling more inspired and determined than upset or nervous by the violent scenes they watched. Their blood pressure also dropped steadily over time during the violent scenes. In contrast, the blood pressure of the men in the nonaggressive group increased.
SOURCE: Mount Sinai School of Medicine, news release, Sept. 10, 2014
HealthDay

Diabetics Face Much Greater Risk of Heart Damage, Study Says: MedlinePlus

Diabetics Face Much Greater Risk of Heart Damage, Study Says: MedlinePlus

A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine
From the National Institutes of HealthNational Institutes of Health






Diabetics Face Much Greater Risk of Heart Damage, Study Says

Ultra-sensitive test detects trouble even with normal cholesterol, researchers find
Thursday, September 11, 2014
HealthDay news image
THURSDAY, Sept. 11, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Using a new ultra-sensitive test, Johns Hopkins researchers found that people with diabetes may have a sixfold higher risk of heart failure even if their cholesterol is low and they appear otherwise healthy.
Results of the new study suggest that people with diabetes and pre-diabetes may be suffering undetectable -- but potentially dangerous -- heart muscle damage, the researchers concluded.
This heart damage is occurring regardless of a diabetic's cholesterol levels, which had no effect on test results, said lead author Elizabeth Selvin. She co-director of the Cardiovascular Epidemiology Training Program at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
"Even if we treat people with diabetes with statins, we may not be able to fully address the increased risk of death and heart failure in that population," Selvin said. "This underscores the need for prevention of diabetes and pre-diabetes."
The study relied on an ultra-sensitive test designed to detect minute levels of troponin, a protein released into the blood when heart cells die.
Emergency room physicians already look at troponin levels to help determine whether a new patient is suffering a heart attack, Selvin said. During a heart attack, the heart's cells leak large amounts of troponin into the bloodstream.
The test used in this study is 10 times more sensitive than the ER blood test, and can detect evidence of chronic heart muscle damage even in people who show no signs of heart disease or illness, according to the study authors.
The highly sensitive troponin test is not yet approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but could wind up being a useful tool for physicians to identify patients who are suffering chronic but undetectable heart muscle damage, Selvin said.
"Our findings suggest that this test may be helpful to identify people with early heart damage," she said, adding that it eventually could stand alongside cholesterol tests as a standard screening tool for heart disease risk.
For this new report, Johns Hopkins researchers looked for minute amounts of troponin in more than 9,300 people enrolled in a long-term heart risk study. None of the participants had any signs of heart disease.
Still, about half of the people had trace amounts of troponin in their bloodstream, an indication that their heart muscle is suffering unseen damage.
The researchers found that people with diabetes were more than twice as likely to have elevated trace amounts of troponin in their bloodstream than people without diabetes. People with pre-diabetes were about one-third more likely to have higher traces of troponin in their blood, according to the study.
Diabetics with elevated trace amounts of troponin in their blood were six times more likely to develop heart failure and almost four times more likely to develop heart disease, compared to people without diabetes or traces of troponin, the study reported.
The findings were recently published online in the journal Circulation.
The fact that some people with pre-diabetes appear to be suffering undetected heart damage should be noted by cardiologists and primary care physicians, said Dr. Robert Eckel, a professor of medicine at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus and a spokesman for the American Heart Association.
"This might be evidence to indicate that even before people get diabetes, the likelihood of having some damage that affects the heart could be there, and these people should be treated more aggressively," Eckel said.
Eckel said this new test, which looks for "high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T," could prove a useful tool for detecting and treating early heart disease, if follow-up studies verify its effectiveness.
The test also may prove useful in the emergency room. In March, a Swedish study reported that the test can help predict the heart attack risk of patients experiencing chest pain.
However, both Selvin and Eckel noted that it's not yet clear why diabetes is damaging the heart muscle, so doctors remain at a loss what to do to prevent the chronic low-level heart damage this test now allows them to detect.
"Even though this is a marker for some bad things happening, this result doesn't give us any idea how we might want to treat this differently," Eckel said.
SOURCES: Elizabeth Selvin, Ph.D., co-director, Cardiovascular Epidemiology Training Program, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; Robert Eckel, M.D., professor of medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, and spokesman, American Heart Association; Aug. 22, 2014, Circulation, online
HealthDay
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Laboratory Tests
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